Utilizing Idea Mapping to Enhance EFL College Students’ Writing Performance at Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang
Writing, among the four skills, is clearly a complex process, and being competent in writing is frequently accepted as being competent of last language skill to acquire (Nunan, 1991:91). Idea mapping refers to mind mapping which can help students to generate and organize their ideas in writing. This study attempts to investigate how can idea mapping improve the writing ability of the third semester students of English Department at Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang. The classroom action research design employed in this study is a collaborative classroom action research. The design of classroom action research utilized in this study follows that of Kemmis and McTaggart (2000:595) cited in Koshy (2007:4) which comprises four main steps, namely, planning, implementing the action, observing, and reflecting which are preceded by reconnaissance (preliminary study). The findings of the study are presented based on the result of students’ writing, observation checklists, and field notes. All the findings are about the activities done in Cycle 1 and Cycle 2. Based on the results of the students’ writing, there was a slight improvement of the students’ mean score from the previous score in the preliminary study to Cycle 1. The mean of the previous score was 46.25 and the mean score of the students’ writing in Cycle 1 was 59.69. The students’ involvement in writing activities was more than what had been stated in the criteria of success. This situation implied that the second criterion of success had not been fulfilled. Better improvement of mean score is gained from the preliminary study to the Cycle 2. The mean of the previous score in the preliminary study was 46.25 and the mean score of the students’ writing in Cycle 2 was 69.85. The improvement met the first criteria of success because there was 75% of the students who achieved the target score 65. Further, Idea mapping has revealed improving the writing ability of the third semester EFL college students at Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang. Based on the implementation of idea mapping in teaching writing, it is suggested that English teachers apply idea mapping especially in teaching writing. Besides, it is advisable for teacher to give more and various tasks to the students. To the future teacher-researchers, particularly those who are interested in applying idea mapping in their classroom research, it is suggested that they conduct classroom action research on the use of idea mapping in teaching writing related to other text types, such as narrative, procedure or recount.
Anderson, M., & Anderson, K. 2003. Text Types in English 3. South Yarra, Victoria: MacMillan.
Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C. & Razavieh, A. 2006. Introduction to Research in Education (6th ed.). New York: Holt Rinehart and Wistom.
Azhari, R. 2004. Teaching Descriptive Writing by Using Pictures among Third Grade Students of SMP 18 Malang. Malang: Unpublished Thesis. State University of Malang.
Balkcom, S. 1992. Cooperative Learning. Education Research. Consumer Guide, Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) of the U.S. Department of Education. (Online), (http://www.ed.gov/pubs/OR/ConsumerGuides/cooplear.html, retrieved on December 28, 2008).
Behrman, C.H. 2003. Ready-to-Use: Writing Proficiency Lesson & Activities. (8th Grade Level). San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.
Boardman, C.A.,& Frydenberg, J. 2002. Writing to Communicate: Paragraphs and Essays, (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Logman.com
Brown, H. D. 2001. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.
Buehl, D. 2001. Clasroom Strategies for Interactive Learning. Madison: International Reading Association.
Cahyono, B.Y. 2001. Second Language Writing and Rhetoric: Research Studies in the Indonesian Context, Malang:State University of Malang.
Canas, A.J., & Novak, J.D. 2006. The Theory Underlining Concept Maps and How to Construct Them. Article,(online), (http://www.ihmc.us/, retrieved on December 28, 2008).
Ching, L.C. 2004. Using Concept Maps to Gauge Students’ Understanding. TheInternet TESL Journal, (online),(http://itslj.org/Technigue/Lee_concept mapping, retrieved on March 1st, 2008).
Cooper, S., & Patton, R. 2004. Writing Logically, Thinking Critically. United States: Pearson Longman.
Dornyei, Z. 2001. Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Educational Broadcast Corporation. 2004. Cooperative and Collaborative Learning. (online). (http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/coopcollab/index.html, retrieved on December 28, 2008).
Elliot, J. 1991. Action Research for Educational Change. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Funny Lolcat Pictures. (online) file:///D:/Data/MAGISTER/thesis%20new/thes/LOLCATS.COM%20-%20Funny%20Lolcat%20Pictures.htm, retrieved on March 07, 2008)
Gebhard, J.G. 2000. Teaching English as a Foreign or Second Language: Teacher Self-Development and Methodology Guide. Ann Arbor, USA: The University of Michigan Press.
Glencoe. 2001. Writer’s Choice: Grammar and Composition. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Harmer, J. 2004. How to Teach Writing. England: Longman.
Huda, N. 1999. Language Learning and Teaching: Issues and Trends. Malang: Universitas Negeri Malang Publisher.
Hyland, K. 2003. Second Language Writing. J.C. Richards (Ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
James, A.2006. An introduction to Concept Mapping software. Article,(online), (http://www.dyslexic.com/conceptintro, retrieved on December 28, 2008).
Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R.T, & Holubec, E. J. 1994. Cooperative Learning in the Classroom. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. (Online), (http://www.ascd.org/portal/site/ascd/template.chapter/menuitem.b71d101a2f7c208cdeb3ffdb62108a0c/?chapterMgmtId=2c908aec2ecaff00VgnVCM1000003d01a8c0RCRD, retrieved on December 28, 2008).
Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Stanne, M.B. 2000. Cooperative Learning Methods: A Meta-Analysis. University of Minnesota: Minnesota.
Kam, H.W., & Wong, Y.L. Ruth. 2004. English Language Teaching in East Asia Today. Singapore: Eastern University Press.
Kemmis, S., & McTaggart, R. 1998. The Action Research Planner(3rd ed.). Gee Long; VIC: Deakin University Press.
Knight, P., & Lindsay, C. 2006. Learning and Teaching English, A Course for Teacher. New York: Oxford University Press.
Koshy, V. 2007. Action Research for Improving Practice: A Practical Guide. London: Paul Champman Publishing.
Latief, A.M. 2003. Penelitian Tindakan Kelas Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris. Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, 10 (20): 99-114.
Mills, E.G. 2003. Action Research A Guide for the Teacher Researcher, (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Merril prentice Hall.
Mukminatien, N. 1997. The Differences of Students’ Writing Achievements Across Different Course Level. Malang: Unpublished Dissertation. State University of Malang.
Novak, J.D. (1998). Learning, Creating, and Using Knowledge: Concept Maps as Facilitative Tools in Schools and Corporations. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Research Article (online), file://localhost/D:/Data/MAGISTER/thesis%20new/concept%20book/The%20Theory%20Underlying%20Concept%20Maps%20and%20How%20to%20Construct%20Them.mht, retrieved on December 28, 2008).
Nunan, D. 1991. Language Teaching Methodology: A Textbook for Teachers. NY, USA: Prentice Hall.
Richards, J.C. 2003. Second Language Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Salija, K. 2004. The Effect of Using Formal Outline in Writing Exposition. Unpublished Disertation. Malang: Graduate Program of State University of Malang.
Saukah, A. 2000. The Teaching of Writing and Grammar in English. Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, dan Seni dan Pengajarannya. 28 (2): 191-199.
Saukah, A, Sukarnyana, I. W., & Waseso, M. G. 2000. Pedoman Penulisan Karya Ilmiah (PPKI). Malang: UM Press.
Slavin, E.R. 1995. Cooperative Learning, Theory, Research, and Practice. (2nd ed.). Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon.
Smalley, R.L., Reutten, M.K.., & Kozyrev, O.R. 2001. Refining Composition Skills: Rhetoric and Grammar. (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Heinley & Heinley Publishers.
Spratt, M.P., & Williams, A. 2005. The Teaching Knowledge Test Course. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Talebinezhad, M.R. 2007. The Effect of Explicit Teaching of Concept Mapping in Expository Writing on EFL Students’ Self Regulation. Asian EFL Journal, (online), (http://www.Linguistic-Journal.com/April_2007_mrt&gmn.php, retrieved on January 24th, 2008).
Teacher’s Guide. 2000. Cooperative Learning. The American Forum for Global Education. (Online), (http://www.globaled.org/TeacherGuide/teacher1.html, retrieved on December 28, 2008).
Telambanua, S. 1992. PengaruhStrategy Mapping Terhadap Kemampuan Menulis. Unpublished Thesis. State University of Malang.
Tenant, A. 2003. Teaching Writing in English for EFL/ESL: mini sagas-The Internet Journal, (On line). Macmillan Publishers Ltd (http//www.onestopenglish.com/News/Magazine/Vocab/writing_thinkingabout.htm, retrieved on August 7th, 2008)
Teo, N. 2003. A handbook for Teacher in Science. Singapore: Federal Publications.
Tompkins, G. E. 1994. Teaching Writing: Balancing Process and Product. (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Tompkin, G.E., & Hoskisson, K. 1995. Language Arts: Content and Teaching Strategies. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Tribble, C. 2003. Writing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Trochim, W.M. K. 2003. An Introduction to Concept Mapping for Planning and Evaluation.TheInternet TESL Journal, (online), (http:iteslj.org/Techniques/Lee_ConceptMaps, retrieved on Pebruary 2nd, 2008)
Troyka, L.Q. 1987. Handbook for Writers. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Ur, P. 1996. A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Weigle, C.S. 2002. Assessing Writing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Wilujeng, S. 2005. Improving The Students’ Writing Skill Through Mind Mapping. Thesis, English Language Education, Graduate Program, State University of Malang.