Himanshu Parmar

Assistant Professor

BPS Mahila Vishwavidyalaya




Literature has been a persevering partner to the human race and has stayed a loyal companion through thick and thin. It comfortably precedes the ‘discovery’ of calligraphy, which made literature ‘standardized’ and increased its significance in the lives of humans. The invention of printing, definitively made literature ‘standard’ as also made mass production a possibility. Alongside this perspective and point-of-view, sustained another perspective whose vestiges can be seen concretizing today: parallel literatures. It adheres to the idea that there have been two strains in literature, spatially and temporally: the dominant and the dominated. The former has been an integral part of the mainstream society while the other survived underneath it, underground. Bakhtin uses the word ‘Carnival’ to bring that dominated strain of literature to the fore.


An Alternative Narrative: Re-reading Ramayana as Asura:

 Tale of the Vanquished