V.N.CH. Ranganath

Research Scholar

Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University



Dr. (Mrs.) Rini S Dwivedi

Associate Professor

Shivaji Science College




For many hundreds of years, women have strived for gaining equality with men. They have been held back and their opportunities taken away from them because of the fact that they were women. Feminism is the belief in social, political, and economic equality of the sexes. And it is the feminist movement that has been trying to give these rights to women who have been deprived of their equality and privileges that men have never given them. Women all over have suffered the brunt of patriarchal control. Right from birth, a woman is thrust with social images, rewards and punishments  that  are  carefully  designed  to  ensure  that  she  does  not develop and quality associated with the other half of humanity. Although Difficult Daughters is not overtly a feminist text but nevertheless brings forth the issues of gender discrimination and the struggle of the suffering Indian women under the oppressive mechanism of a closed society. They struggle to maintain their dignity and ultimately retrieve the autonomy of their selfhood. The narrative fabric of Difficult Daughters set around the time of partition is the story of a woman whose battle for independence engulfs her, leaving a contour of partition and pain on her outwardly calm face. Manju Kapur’s Difficult Daughters makes an absorbing reading and pushes the reader to break through the silence of suffering Virmati, who is seen struggling with her desires for education and illicit love in the face of hardship that threaten to destroy her inner self. The aim of this paper is to make a study of the novel where a woman bound in tradition seeks to satiate her unsuppressed desires and is ultimately devoured by pain and isolation.

 Key Words: feminism, family, patriarchy, life, play, modern society, relationship, women

Click to View and Download Full Research Paper in PDF:

Patriarchal Hegemony in Manju Kapur’s ‘Difficult Daughters’