Sigmund Freud’s Psychic Apparatus Theory: A Study of the Protagonist in Saul Bellow’s Novel ‘Herzog’


  • Dr. Ramaballabh Sharma Lecturer in English Rajasthan Education Service Rajasthan, India



Psychology, Psychic Apparatus, Id, Ego, Super-ego, Saul Bellow, Herzog


“Psychology is the scientific study of the behaviour of humans..... The term ‘behaviour’ refers to both covert observable actions and covert observable mental processes and states such as perception, thought, reasoning, problem-solving, emotions and feelings (Encyclopaedia Britannica, P. 470) If the field of psychology is to study the mental processes and activities, art and literature give verbal expression to those mental and psychic processes. Sigmund Freud’s Psychic theories have encouraged the literary artists to probe deeper into human psyche and thereby presenting the ideas, ideals, thoughts and feelings which are of human interest and universal significance. The present article aims to highlight how the Sigmund Freud’s Psychic apparatus (Id, Ego and Super-ego) exercise a controlling and dominating influence on the personality, behaviour and character of the Protagonist Moses E. Herzog, depicted and portrayed by Saul Bellow, in his best known novel ‘Herzog.’


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Bellow, Saul “Two faces of a hostile world” New York Times book review. 26 Aug, 1956.
Harper, Gordon L. “Saul Bellow: The art of fiction, an interview” Paris review. 37, 1965.
Freud, Sigmund. An outline of Psychoanalysis historical and expository works on psychoanalysis, translated by James Strachey, edited by Albert Dickson. London: Penguin Books, 1993.
Snowden, Ruth. Teach yourself Freud. Mcgraw-Hill. 2006.
Bellow, Saul. Herzog. 1964. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1984
Bellow, Saul. Herzog. The Viking Press, New York, 1964.




How to Cite

Sharma, D. R. (2019). Sigmund Freud’s Psychic Apparatus Theory: A Study of the Protagonist in Saul Bellow’s Novel ‘Herzog’. SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH, 7(11), 10.