Internet Trolls and Memes: A Carnivalesque Perspective
In literature, culture is seen, in a broad perspective, as relating to texts and signifying practices. Cultural Studies has moved away from Raymond Williams’ definition as a general process of intellectual, spiritual and aesthetic development.
The early definitions of culture remained strictly in the hands of urban and city dwellers. Urban areas had tools which ensured the travel of ‘ideas' and ‘ideologies' and culture remained restricted to a few and led to a cultural elitism. Culture was thought to be found only in the populace who were aristocratic and learned in classical languages. Mathew Arnold in Culture and Anarchy says that Culture ‘is a study of perfection’. He opines that Culture that stems itself from the learning of Greek and Latin is valued either because of vanity or ignorance and no serious man would call this culture. These views, which were canonical were held up high only until the end of both wars. The arrival of Postmodernism witnessed the destabilization of cultural centers and things that were cast down as inferior and unworthy such as pornography, chick lit, and soap operas, were made objects of scrutiny. That is where the focus of my research, the vast and potential world of Cyberspace where cultures are formed instantly.
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