Swift's Gulliver's Travels: A Step Forward In Menippean Mode of Satire
Keywords:1) Northrop Frye (2) Menippean Satires (3) Mennipus. (4) Abstract Ideas and Theories (5) A Tale of Tub (6) Intellectual Odyssey (7) An Ingenue (7) A misanthrope (8) Techniques not that of a novelist (9) The king of Brobdinag (10) Gulliver (11) Pride and Folly of European Civilization (12) England's History and Political Institutions. (13) Priests (14) Judges (15) Soldiers (16) Two ears of corn (17) Service to his country (18) Human follies and not Human beings.
Northrop Frye in his Anatomy of Criticism has placed Gulliver's Travels in the rubric of novels. Frye calls it a satire in Menippean mode. Mennipus was a Greek ctric in third century B.C. His works come to us throngh Lucian. Menippean satires were in verse which reflect more towards the attitude than man himself. Swift has created two dominant points to control the materials. That of the younger Gulliver and a misanthrope. Swift has applied here a method of ingenue which is an agent of indirect Satire. Gulliver now is in the land of Giants where he is placed face to face the Giant King. The Giant King asks him so many questions related to the law, religion, education and many more things, and finally he comes to know through Gulliver's answers that all these things are not working well in the society of Gulliver and finally gives has opinion about mankind in a very bitter way.