The Third Code: Marathi Translation of Geetanjali as Recodification
Keywords:Translation studies, Tagore, Geetanjali, translation thoery, recodification, third code, radical innovation and moderate innovation.
The paper aims to explore the Marathi translation done by a Marathi critic Dr. Ram Mhaisalkar(2003) of Tagore’s own English translation of Geetanjali using the theoretical approach of translation as recodification developed by William Frawley in his essay ‘Prolegomenon to the Theory of Translation” (2000). I will be dealing with selected poems which can be analyzed from the perspective of Frawley. He in his essay critiques the established theories of translation and tries to develop a new approach to the study of translations by defining translation as recodification. He believes that translations do not involve either establishing synonymy or linguistic transfer across languages. Instead they are independent; and for being so they can never be discredited or disproved. He explains that a translation is a bilateral accommodation of source and target codes leading ultimately to production of a third code, which means it is an innovation in its own right. The newly produced third code is a new semiotic code which is either a ‘radical innovation’ or a ‘moderate innovation.’ Thus far many critics of translation studies have discussed about the source code of the original text and target code of the translated text but the concept of recodification developed by Frawley focuses mainly on the ‘third code’ and its significance for discovering deeper insights of a translated text. In the light of this theory I will be reading Mhaisalkar’s translations of Geetanjali as a generation of a third code in Marathi and as an example of moderate innovation. Thus the paper attempts to illustrate that how the recodification model works during the process of translation and how it plays a role in the production for translations of other cultures and literatures.