SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH 2021-03-02T10:18:00+00:00 Sandeep Open Journal Systems <p><strong>SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH</strong> is a peer-reviewed (refereed) and open access journal<strong>.</strong> IJELLH is indexed with <strong> <a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl=";source=gmail&amp;ust=1576664770299000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEpmvLz85rDq7nHLXm3B9JKSvTL1w">Google Scholar</a></strong> and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl=";source=gmail&amp;ust=1576664770299000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEUekxyd4bJz8pEsTwPT1wuvkAmHg">Academia</a>. SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH has been granted new Online ISSN: 2582-3574 and Print ISSN: 2582-4406. The journal is published by SMART MOVES publications, Bhopal, India.</p> <p>The previously granted ISSN 2321-7065 was for the International Journal of English Language, Literature in Humanities (IJELLH), which was valid from June 2013 until November 2019. From November 2019 onwards, the new title of the journal will be SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH. IJELLH provides researchers with an online platform to publish their research work.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope for publication</strong></p> <p>The primary objective of IJELLH is to offer an online open-access platform for international researchers. IJELLH publishes articles on a broad spectrum of English Language, English Literature and Linguistics. The journal further covers various aspects of the research field and most of these are mentioned hereafter:</p> <p><strong> English Language</strong> – Grammar, Punctuation, Accent, Comparative Study, ELS (English as a second or foreign language), English language teachers training, Language teaching methodologies<strong> </strong>and other related topics.</p> <p><strong> English Literature</strong> – Fiction from Chaucerian Age to Post Colonial Age, Canadian Literature, Indian Literature &amp; many other topics related to Literature till date and related subject areas.</p> <p><strong> Linguistics</strong> – Linguistics is the scientific study of language. There are three aspects to this study: language form, language meaning and language in context. IJOHMN published following subject areas like Applied Linguistics, Language Acquisition, Language Documentation, Linguistic Theories, Philosophy of Language, Phonetics, Sociolinguistics, Text and Corpus Linguistics, Translating and Interpreting, Writing Systems and related subject areas.</p> <p><strong>PKP PN</strong></p> <p>IJELLH is preserving OUR PUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS with <a href="">PKP PN</a> ensuring that their content will be secure and available into the future. PKP PN functions as a “dark archive”. PKP has developed the PKP Preservation Network (PKP PN) to digitally preserve OJS journals. The<a href=""> LOCKSS</a> program offers decentralized and distributed preservation, seamless perpetual access, and preservation of the authentic original version of the content.</p> <p> </p> An Analysis of English Language Orthography, Typography and Grammar used by Millennial on Social Media Platforms 2021-02-27T06:28:59+00:00 Alia Khan Prof. Mohammad Rizwan Khan <p>Social media is a term with which most of the people around the world are well acquainted. The advancement of technology has provided a new medium through which we can propose, deliver, swap, and share our ideas without moving a single inch. It is a new avenue for conveying information and a trend which is now-a-days in vogue. From infants to adults, everyone is somehow in contact with the social media. Similarly, education system too has a profound influence of social media. From placement institutes, school authority, teachers, learners, to parents in fact every stakeholder of education system is somehow tied to social media. Jeff Bezos, CEO at once described the power of social media by asserting that “If you make customers unhappy in the physical world, they might each tell 6 friends. If you make customers unhappy on the Internet, they can each tell 6,000 friends” (Pencak 2019). Thus, we can assume the potency and status of social media in our life. Though social media is affecting many significant areas of human life, but the area which itself is considered as a ‘systematic means of communication’ (that is ‘Language’) is too being swayed by this virtual medium. Social media has exceedingly affected English language skills. The paper explores how the social media has influenced linguistics habits of millennial, whether it has affected upcoming academicians in a positive or negative way, and what should be done in order to protect their linguistic habits from the negative influence of social media.</p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alia Khan, Prof. Mohammad Rizwan Khan A Breezy Call of Envied Kiss In Thomas Gray’s Country Churchyard 2021-02-27T09:31:06+00:00 Nandeswar Deori <p>A&nbsp; great poem that&nbsp; touches&nbsp; the&nbsp; core&nbsp; heart&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; readers&nbsp; executing&nbsp; the&nbsp; rustic&nbsp; forefathers’&nbsp; lives&nbsp; and&nbsp; emotions&nbsp; is&nbsp; nothing&nbsp; but&nbsp; Gray’s&nbsp; Country&nbsp; Churchyard&nbsp; which&nbsp; uplands&nbsp; the lawn&nbsp; with&nbsp; kindred&nbsp; spirit.&nbsp; Gray&nbsp; harnesses&nbsp; the&nbsp; poem&nbsp; with&nbsp; the&nbsp; breezy&nbsp; calls&nbsp; that&nbsp; enviously kiss&nbsp; us&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; destiny&nbsp; of&nbsp; ‘’homely&nbsp; joys’’.&nbsp; The&nbsp; humble&nbsp; buried&nbsp; beds&nbsp; are&nbsp; not&nbsp; only&nbsp; twittering&nbsp; ears&nbsp; of&nbsp; Gray&nbsp; but&nbsp; also&nbsp; they&nbsp; are&nbsp; the&nbsp; signification&nbsp; of&nbsp; clarion&nbsp; call&nbsp; that&nbsp; figure&nbsp; out&nbsp; solemn&nbsp; background&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; rude&nbsp; forefathers&nbsp; who&nbsp; unlike&nbsp; the&nbsp; citizen&nbsp; of&nbsp; city&nbsp; swelled&nbsp; their&nbsp; ‘’paths&nbsp; of&nbsp; glory’’&nbsp; against&nbsp; the&nbsp; ‘’inevitable&nbsp; hour’’.&nbsp; As&nbsp; an&nbsp; advocate&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; down-trodden,&nbsp; Gray&nbsp; tries&nbsp; to&nbsp; persuade&nbsp; that&nbsp; the&nbsp; rich&nbsp; should&nbsp; not&nbsp; look&nbsp; down&nbsp; upon&nbsp; the&nbsp; poor.&nbsp; The&nbsp; poor&nbsp; are&nbsp; also&nbsp; respectable&nbsp; being&nbsp; though&nbsp; they&nbsp; do&nbsp; not&nbsp; get&nbsp; an&nbsp; opportunity&nbsp; to&nbsp; elevate&nbsp; their&nbsp; lives&nbsp; as&nbsp; do&nbsp; the&nbsp; rich.&nbsp; Furthermore,&nbsp; though&nbsp; they&nbsp; were&nbsp; not&nbsp; able&nbsp; to&nbsp; cremate&nbsp; their&nbsp; dead&nbsp; bodies&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; boundary&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; churchyard,&nbsp; it&nbsp; was&nbsp; not&nbsp; their&nbsp; faults.&nbsp; Despite&nbsp; the&nbsp; wealthy&nbsp; and&nbsp; the&nbsp; proud&nbsp; people&nbsp; though&nbsp; get&nbsp; place&nbsp; to&nbsp; be&nbsp; cremated&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; churchyards&nbsp; singing&nbsp; the&nbsp; hymns&nbsp; in&nbsp; honor&nbsp; of&nbsp; dead,&nbsp; they&nbsp; suffer&nbsp; huge&nbsp; setbacks&nbsp; in&nbsp; this&nbsp; worldly&nbsp; affairs.&nbsp; Because&nbsp; time&nbsp; is&nbsp; the&nbsp; grand&nbsp; mower&nbsp; whose&nbsp; sickle&nbsp; never&nbsp; leaves&nbsp; anybody&nbsp; whether&nbsp; rich&nbsp; or&nbsp; poor&nbsp; but&nbsp; mows&nbsp; down&nbsp; all &nbsp;forever.</p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nandeswar Deori Assessing Kambui Hills North Forest Reserve Community’s Participation in Forest Reserve Management and Sustainability in Kenema District, Eastern Sierra Leone 2021-02-27T10:37:00+00:00 Joseph Christian Adamu Mboma <p><strong>This paper explores Kambui Hills North Forest Reserve (KHNFR) community’s participation in forest management and sustainability in Kenema District as a case study. Crucial issues examined were the forest reserve management strategies used by forest communities, participation of stakeholders in forest sustainability and livelihood activities of forest communities in the KHNFR. For sampling technique, six (6) forest communities were randomly sampled. From the sampled communities, forty two (42) respondents were sampled from the study communities. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the field and focus group discussion guide. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. Findings revealed that there was a Core Forest Management Plan operated by the communities and stakeholders but the District Forest Office (DFO) does not follow its prescriptions strictly. It also indicated that the involvement of forest communities in the management of KHNFR was very small and low income generating livelihood activities. It was therefore recommended that forest communities in the KHNFR should be provided with alternative livelihood sources so as to empower them play the role of co-managers of the forest reserve.</strong></p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Joseph Christian Adamu Mboma A Psychoanalysis of Female Characters in the Novels Heat and Dust and Inside the Haveli : Function of Mother Archetype in the Characters of the Narrator and Geeta 2021-02-27T10:46:29+00:00 Deepali Jaiswal <p>The psychoanalysts enhance our understanding of our consciousness, the self and self-identity. Psychoanalytic theory plays an important role in the comprehension of the fundamental condition of selfhood. The self is not an unified entity in psychoanalytical terms. Human subject emerges as an outcrop of the unconscious desire. After Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, a swiss psychologist is considered as an eminent contributor to psychoanalysis who theorized the concept of collective unconscious. The purpose of my study is to find out the presence of the collective unconscious and to analyse two female characters, The Narrator , from the novel Heat and Dust and Geeta from Inside the Haveli with the help of Jung's theory of&nbsp; collective unconscious and mother archetype. In this research paper several theoretical concepts of&nbsp; Carl Jung are used to analyse the female characters. Jung’s theories are applied during the analysis process such as personal conscious, collective conscious and archetypes. I would use qualitative method for the analysis of the characters of the Narrator and&nbsp; Geeta. I would use important dialogues and incidents for the data collection for the analysis of the characters. The psychoanalytic study of the Narrator and Geeta shows that they both have collective unconscious. I would study the function of mother archetype in the life of the Narrator and Geeta</p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Deepali Jaiswal History in the Attic: Search for Roots in Ramabai Espinet’s The Swinging Bridge 2021-02-27T11:10:14+00:00 S. Asha <p>In most of diaspora literature there is an attempt to retrieve the past. This makes one measure time in many ways, different calendars, change of seasons, past encounters narrated through wars, defeats, encounters and disasters. It is remembered through family history, ancestral heritage, nostalgia, memory and even through national disasters. This interaction portrays the immigrants caught in flight of memories, relationships and images. The relocation has its disgust for one thing or the other. The author has to live in the reminiscences, a collective memory representing a symbolic relationship between past and present. <em>The Swinging Bridge</em> &nbsp;by Ramabai Espinet chronicles the multiple exiles that are part of the Indian experience in the Caribbean and Canada through two figures one from the past- great grandmother Gainder and the other from the present - Mona, the protagonist. The novel commemorates the maternal roots and routes of Indo-Caribbean history by establishing the subjectivity of widows and young girls from India who crossed the Kala Pani (Black waters of the Atlantic) in search of new beginnings in Trinidad and the great-grand-daughter who engages in an existential quest for selfhood in Canada. Grief motivates a flood of personal memories as Mona begins to remember intimate details of family life that had been repressed under the cover of migration. Bits and pieces of the past, fragments scattered in various places, childhood memories, overheard conversations, prayer songs, all come together in the attic. She explores the secret songs, photographs and letters giving her a powerful voice for her culture, her family, her fellow women and for herself. Mona’s drive to document history enables her to reveal the family’s carefully guarded secrets- domestic violence, drunken rampages, sexual abuse, illegitimate children, and even AIDS. This paper seeks to analyse the novel’s diasporic contents and find out whether this attempt at retrieval of the past brings about a change in the perception of today’s generation. The author brings to light the problems of a plural society calling for need for relationships and need for mutual respect- all to avoid conflict situations through this effective tracing of history in the novel.</p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 S. Asha Native Culture and Gender Politics in Nagaland: A Study of Easterine Iralu a Terrible Matriarchy 2021-03-01T07:54:20+00:00 Veena Gour Dr. Shubhra Tripathi <p>The paper aims at examining Easterine Kire Iralu’s novel <em>A Terrible Matriarchy</em> (2007) from feminist point of view. &nbsp;The novel <em>A Terrible Matriarchy</em> is the coming-of-age story of a young girl, Dielieno. The narrative explores the suffering of innocent Dielieno and her confrontation with the traditional Angami society to which she belongs to. In the ethnic world of Nagaland, both patriarchal and matriarchal control co-exists but it also has a strong Tantric tradition from time immemorial. For various reasons the status of women in the northeast has not been different from the women in the mainstream of India. Easterine Iralu through her girl protagonist Dielieno depicts the severe gender discrimination where the grandmother neglected Lieno to the worst extent, always caring and preferring the boys. The grandmother's matriarchal hegemony makes Lieno revolt silently. The various aspects of women's marginal status and native culture have been analyzed in the paper.</p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Veena Gour, Dr. Shubhra Tripathi Rushdie and the Problem of Exile 2021-03-01T08:57:23+00:00 Dr. Shadan Jafri <p>Exile in the words of Wallace Stevens, is “a mind of winter” in which the pathos of summer and autumn as much as the potential of spring are nearby but unobtainable. Exile originated in the age-old practice of banishment. Once banished, the exile lives an anomalous and miserable life, with the stigma of being an outsider. Although it is true that anyone prevented from returning home is an exile, some distinctions can be made among exiles, refugees, expatriates and émigrés. Edward Said, in his work, <em>Reflections on Exile</em>, writes, “Refugees…are a creation of the twentieth-century state.” The word “refugee” has become a political one, suggesting large herds of innocent and bewildered people requiring urgent international assistance, whereas “exile” carries with it, I think, a touch of solitude and spirituality. Expatriates voluntarily live in an alien country; usually for personal or social reasons…An émigré is anyone who emigrates to a new country. (181) In this paper, I will take up Salman Rushdie and his experience of exile and try to analyse and differentiate the two kinds of exiles he underwent in his career.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Shadan Jafri Diasporic Dilemma in Amit Chaudhuri’s Afternoon Raag 2021-03-01T09:39:26+00:00 Asfar Sadath K <p>Identity is one of the important themes of the diasporic writing.&nbsp; Identity plays an important role in an immigrant's life because they feel rootless and nostalgic when they try to become members of a new group. There are different aspects of identities like political, social, cultural, economic and individual and so on. These are playing an important role in an immigrant's life. The concept of home always gives a sweet feel for immigrants. A sense of belongingness plays an important role in immigrant life. Immigrants never accept the host country as their country.</p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Asfar Sadath K Nation and Narrative: A Study of Nuruddin Farah’s Maps 2021-03-01T10:20:31+00:00 Amalu Anil Kumar <p>The article entitled "Nation and Narrative: A Study of Nuruddin Farah's <em>Maps"</em> attempts a postcolonial reading of the text trying to froground the assertion of a national self. The manner in which literature offers itself as a powerful platform to assert national identity and the novel adroitly doing the same would serve as the main thrust areas. Elaborate study on the concept of nation as expounded by critics like Homi Bhaba , Benedict Anderson and the like would serve as the background of the analysis. The notion of national identity and the construction of an image of Somalia as attempted by the author stand as testimony to the same. The author trying to reiterate his lost national self and how he skillfully uses literature as its medium, as part of the postcolonial agenda, is the focus point of the article.</p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Amalu Anil Kumar Probe on Myth and Hero, A Case Study of Harry Potter: Asserting Harry Potter as a Modern Mythical Hero 2021-03-01T10:39:56+00:00 Devu M Suresh <p>A Hero is the one who stands unique as his own, based on the presumption that, he is someone who has given his or her life to something bigger than oneself. Throughout this research paper, there have been undertaken many references and probes to the realm of ‘Hero’, obviously that of ‘Mythical Hero’, as the ideology concerning hero dates back it’s root in ancient myths and legends all over the world. Myriads of attempts have been made to the ‘Hero Myth Cycle’ proposed by Campbell, to assert the novel conception, concerning the well renowned fictional character, Harry Potter as a ‘Modern Mythical Hero’.</p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Devu M Suresh Disorientation, Dislocation and Displacement in Kiran Desai's the Inheritance of Loss 2021-03-01T11:15:08+00:00 Nasrullah Mambrol <p>The Inheritance of Loss is more a book about the migrant experience. The plot is essentially about disorientation as a result of dislocation and displacement and the accompanying lack of sympathy resulting in feeling of being dispossessed. The characters feel the pull of the margin all the time thereby struggling to decide between the choice of moving out or remaining there. A sense of alienation and loss is always the immigrant's lifelong companion though they left their shores for a sense of economic or social or professional fulfillment.</p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nasrullah Mambrol Istanbul as Palimpsest: The Black Book as a Postmodernist Representation of Turkish History and Culture 2021-03-02T08:05:22+00:00 Aneesa Ayanee <p>Orhan Pamuk’s novel,<em> The Black Book</em> is a postmodern chronicle of Turkey in which the author uses the structure of a detective novel to delineate the themes of identity, culture and hybridity. The paper aims to depict how Pamuk foregrounds that identities are never determinate but are forever eluding by presenting a love triangle which disappears underneath a mystical quest for one’s true self. Galip’s assuming the persona of his alter-ego, Celal; Prince Osman’s pursuit of true knowledge through reading diverse books and ultimately rejecting them; and Bedii Usta’s disillusion with the State for disapproving the mannequins, all represent the interlacing of cultures and interdependence of identities in contemporary Turkey. Moreover, in the novel, the rich Ottoman tradition and Islamic literature are also revisited in a postmodern light so as to present the allegorical and political connotations inherent in them. The paper also examines how the novel portrays the forced westernization and erasure of history and memories through the use of film ekphrasis to highlight how the Turkish citizens were lured by the Western cinema and indoctrinated about the superiority of the West so as to generate in them a sense of anxiety about their identities.</p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Aneesa Ayanee Question of Identity: Orhan Pamuk’s The White Castle 2021-03-02T08:12:53+00:00 Aarifa Khanum <p>Orhan Pamuk is a leading contemporary Turkish writer and winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize for Literature. In his novels he tackles certain universal themes, such as the search for a new identity, the conflict between East and West, the domination of Western culture and its impact on Turkish society, the spread of consumerism, feminism, the search for love and its vanity. Pamuk is influenced by the rich literary tradition of Turkey and at an equivalent time he is affected with the writers like Dostoevsky, Albert Camus, Miller and plenty of others. As a postmodernist author, Orhan pamuk’s fiction echoes the priority for the identity of someone. This novel <em>The White Castle</em> is studied for the exploration of the Question of identity like what is real identity of the person. Pamuk himself has faced the perplexity of identity as he is suspect by media of revealing the national sentiment. The protagonist’s Hoja and the Venetian traveler are not happy with their gift identity and within the course of their life they assume a replacement identity.</p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Aarifa Khanum Lacuna of Primary Skills Among High School Students of South Coastal Districts in Andhra Pradesh 2021-03-02T10:18:00+00:00 Palle Manohar Dr.G.Chenna Reddy <p>The present paper covers the teaching and learning process of English language teaching in government schools of Andhra Pradesh. As the aim of the syllabus by the SCERT, Andhra Pradesh, the learners of English are expected to achieve proper communication skills to apply it in the global context. Bright and Marc Gregor (1978) have remarked that “there is no language learning without exposure” At this juncture mere knowledge of English, based upon listening, speaking, reading and writing directed towards acquisition of communication skills among high school students. The present study intended to find out the lacuna of primary skills in English language among the students at high school level. An Oxford dictionary defines lacuna as ‘an absent part’. This paper portrays the percentage of expected and achieved skills of the students which is technically the term called as ‘Lacuna’. Most of the students are promoted to the next classes without achieving all the skills expecting by the SCERT. Gradually the difference between expected and achieved skills have been increasing by the students year by year. At this juncture, it is very much needed to fill the lacuna between expected and achieved skills among the students for the strong foundation of the students in the field of communication skills.</p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Palle Manohar, Dr.G.Chenna Reddy