SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH 2020-12-02T11:34:42+00:00 Sandeep Open Journal Systems <p><strong>SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH</strong> is a peer-reviewed (refereed) and open access journal<strong>.</strong> IJELLH is indexed with <strong> <a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl=";source=gmail&amp;ust=1576664770299000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEpmvLz85rDq7nHLXm3B9JKSvTL1w">Google Scholar</a></strong> and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl=";source=gmail&amp;ust=1576664770299000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEUekxyd4bJz8pEsTwPT1wuvkAmHg">Academia</a>. SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH has been granted new Online ISSN: 2582-3574 and Print ISSN: 2582-4406. The journal is published by SMART MOVES publications, Bhopal, India.</p> <p>The previously granted ISSN 2321-7065 was for the International Journal of English Language, Literature in Humanities (IJELLH), which was valid from June 2013 until November 2019. From November 2019 onwards, the new title of the journal will be SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH. IJELLH provides researchers with an online platform to publish their research work.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope for publication:</strong></p> <p>The primary objective of IJELLH is to offer an online open-access platform for international researchers. IJELLH publishes articles on a broad spectrum of English Language, English Literature and Linguistics. The journal further covers various aspects of the research field and most of these are mentioned hereafter:</p> <p><strong> English Language</strong> – Grammar, Punctuation, Accent, Comparative Study, ELS (English as a second or foreign language), English language teachers’ training, Language teaching methodologies<strong> </strong>and other related topics.</p> <p><strong> English Literature</strong> – Fiction from Chaucerian Age to Post Colonial Age, Canadian Literature, Indian Literature &amp; many other topics related to Literature till date and related subject areas.</p> <p><strong> Linguistics</strong> – Linguistics is the scientific study of language. There are three aspects to this study: language form, language meaning and language in context. IJOHMN published following subject areas like Applied Linguistics, Language Acquisition, Language Documentation, Linguistic Theories, Philosophy of Language, Phonetics, Sociolinguistics, Text and Corpus Linguistics, Translating and Interpreting, Writing Systems and related subject areas.</p> <p><strong>PKP PN</strong></p> <p>IJELLH is preserving OUR PUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS with <a href="">PKP PN</a> ensuring that their content will be secure and available into the future. PKP PN functions as a “dark archive”. PKP has developed the PKP Preservation Network (PKP PN) to digitally preserve OJS journals. The<a href=""> LOCKSS</a> program offers decentralized and distributed preservation, seamless perpetual access, and preservation of the authentic original version of the content.</p> <p> </p> Pains and Pangs in Anton Chekhov’s Story Vanka 2020-11-30T08:55:59+00:00 Raj Kishor Singh <p>The present paper explores and analyses pains and pangs in Anton Chekhov’s Story <em>Vanka</em> by the means of critical discourse analysis for pedagogical purpose. The study paper was carried out by using secondary resources. In <em>Vanka</em>, with his simplicity and minuteness of details, Chekhov reveals his sense of man's inhumanity to man. Poverty, widely discussed in Marxist ideologies, is a curse to majority of school age children. The school age child Vanka is not exception anyway. &nbsp;</p> 2020-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Raj Kishor Singh Dystopian Vision in Ian McEwan’s Enduring Love 2020-11-30T09:08:36+00:00 Shankar Subedi <p>This paper argues that the novel <em>Enduring Love</em> projects a dystopian vision through the portrayal of failed and embittered lives of major characters. The novel is about the characters’ futile search for utopian life. Joe, through scientific rationalization, Clarissa through literary imagination and love, Jed through religious belief want<u> t</u>o live a fulfilling and blissful life but fail due to various reasons related to misplaced values and beliefs or the social realities. None of the ways they adopt, leads them to the fulfillment of utopian ideals. Success through science, religion, or imagination is just a chimera that causes people to hallucinate. The narrative of enduring love interweaves subverted utopian lives of the characters from different fields of life thereby dramatizing the idea that life is dystopian and people’s attempt to live an ideal life is only a mirage. This paper analyzes the novel <em>Enduring Love</em> with the help of ideas about utopia and dystopia borrowed from writers like Krishan Kumar, R. Carter, Robert C. Elliot, and others.</p> 2020-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Shankar Subedi Marriage is a Mirage 2020-11-30T09:29:05+00:00 Dr. Hemanth Kumar Mekathoti Dr. Narasinga Rao Barnikana <p>Indian female writers attempt to depict the problems of women in the modern society dominated by male chauvinism and in rural India in particular, touching the feministic sensibilities. These female writers handle astonishing variety of themes. Among the women modern writers of fiction Kavery Nambisan occupies a unique place for more than one reason.<em>She </em>has begun her literary career by writing numerous children’s books. <em>Female characters in her novels truly feel that love and marriage are not mere accidents but it is a trap and a cage where emotional stress haunts them through lack of care, bondage and love.</em></p> <p>The character ‘Shari’ of Kavery Nambisan’s second novel <em>Mango–Coloured Fish </em>(2000), is a young girl, who is caught in a complex, entanglement of uncertainties and disillusionments, and she has different notions about the institution of marriage. Nambisan successfully depicted the contemporary younger generation pre and past marriage dilemmas and ordeals effectively and lively. The protagonist Shari wants to trace out her self-identity and freedom in this world and this is clearly presented in the novel <em>Mango –Coloured Fish.</em></p> 2020-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Hemanth Kumar Mekathoti, Dr. Narasinga Rao Barnikana Meaning and Meaning Making in Arabic: Moving from Semantics to Pragmatics to Ka:rmatics 2020-11-30T09:37:46+00:00 Muhammed Salim Chilukuri Bhuvaneswar <p>Ka:rmik Linguistic theory is one of the most revolutionary theories in linguistics which aims to describe language from a causal perspective of WHY giving rise to WHAT through HOW: “As you are, so you think; as you think, so you speak (or act)” (Bhuvaneswar). In an adapted form, it can be modified as: As you are, so you think; as you think, so you mean. In his extension of semantics to ka:rmatics in dealing with proverb-meaning, Bhuvaneswar (2012) has shown a new dimension of meaning and meaning-making, namely, the causal dimension of creation, change, and transformation of meaning in language. According to Bhuvaneswar, if semantics deals with sentence meaning and pragmatics with utterance meaning, ka:rmatics (i.e., experiential pragmatics) explores experiential meaning via dispositional meaning of contextual meaning (pragmatics) of sentential meaning (semantics). What this amounts to is a causal understanding of meaning as it is created, changed, and transformed as languages are evolved and developed: Language is as it is (i.e., lingual meaning is as it is) because of what it is (dispositionally) intended to do (i.e., to mean) what it does (i.e., means).</p> <p>In this paper, an attempt has been made by selecting two sentences used in real life Yemeni Arabic to show how meaning is derived. In the process, it will be shown how semantics becomes pragmatics and pragmatics becomes ka:rmatics.</p> 2020-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammed Salim, Chilukuri Bhuvaneswar Images of Nature in the Poetry of Abu Al-Qasim Al-Shabbi 2020-11-30T09:50:02+00:00 Yazid Meftah Ali Wahas <p>The article proposes to explore the images of nature in the poetry of Abu Al-Qasim Al-Shabbi. Nature is an essential element that has played a significant part in Arabic Romantic poetry. Nature and Romanticism are synonyms with each other that we can not talk about Romanticism without talking about nature. Al-Shabbi took from it a refuge during hard times where he finds himself in dire need for lap away from the social injustice particularly when his country, Tunisia, was under the French colonialism. According to him, there is a spiritual unity and shared awareness between nature and a man. Al-Shabbi as an Arabic Romantic poet, nature has occupied a place and become an intellectual content in his poetry. He used different images of nature such as morning, evening, night, love and autumn to express his philosophy towards life and people.</p> 2020-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Yazid Meftah Ali Wahas Theme of Love and Suffering of Women in Rabindranath Tagore’s Novel ‘A Grain of Sand’ (Chokher Bali, 1903) 2020-11-30T10:06:17+00:00 Ritu Tandon <p>The novel, ‘A Grain of Sand’ (Chokher Bali,1903), is about the social problems of early marriages, widowhood, and extra-marital affair of a married man with a young widow. In this novel, Rabindranath Tagore has portrayed the problems of women in Indian society like widow-remarriage, child-marriage, dowry and illicit extra-marital relationship along with the predicaments of widows in Bengal at the end of the nineteenth century. The difficulties and complications of human relationships and the significance of love in the human relationships are portrayed in this novel. &nbsp;He has encouraged the need of female education and the abolition of social evils like child-marriage, dowry, widowhood and illiteracy of women, domestic hostility and submissiveness of women are presented in his wonderful novels and stories. In the centre of these social obstacles, female education is revealed as a greater need in the Tagore’s novels. He has portrayed the solitude, sufferings, disappointments and unfulfilled suppressed desires of sexuality of a Bengali widow Binodini in this novel ‘A Grain of Sand’. Rabindranath Tagore had seen social realities from a psychological point of view and performed the role of a social reformer or a moralist. He has presented the problems of women by examining what is happening in the society. In this novel Tagore has shown an amazing notice of the predicaments of women of the Hindu society.&nbsp; In this study an investigation has been made to show how Rabindranath Tagore has depicted the theme of love and suffering of women in this novel ‘A Grain of Sand’. &nbsp;</p> 2020-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ritu Tandon The Role of Translation activities as a Teaching Strategy in English Language Teaching for Rural Students 2020-11-30T10:12:15+00:00 Bhargavi Pedda Ramireddy Gari <p>The human race on the globe lined with the letters and sounds of English. The English language has been proved as significant for a long time now. In this computerized era language is a nightmare to first-generation learners because it is costly in the market where they cannot afford to own. So, this paper is going to address the importance of the Translation and Translation Activities in language classrooms to teach first-generation learners and justify why the Translation method is suitable to rural background students to learn LSRW skills. It also explains how these learners are going to improve vocabulary, writing, and speaking styles, filling vocabulary gaps in L1 and L2, understanding concepts and word recall and retention.</p> 2020-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Bhargavi Pedda Ramireddy Gari A Bolt from the Blue in Kazuo Ishiguro’s The Remains of the Day 2020-11-30T10:21:41+00:00 M. Meghaa Shobha Ramaswamy <p>Kazuo Ishiguro, receiver of the Nobel Prize for Literature in the year 2017, isa Nagasaki-born writer. He developed his writing career in the year 1982 and many of his novels have historical contextual ideas. The literary attributes of Ishiguro's works are acknowledged for his uniqueness in English writing and method. It blends the sequence of the plot, to the extraordinary subjectivity of the portrayal, and to the historical sensitivity which truly interweaves with the depictions.The nostalgic and evocative characteristics of his writings make him the master of prodigious artistic works. The renowned novel of Kazuo Ishiguro, <em>The Remains of the Day</em>, which bagged him the prestigious Booker Prize in the year 1989, portrays the psychological niceties associated with the protagonist of the novel, Stevens.&nbsp; Stevens is a butler who works under an aristocrat whom he revered the most at the beginning but later he was betrayed by knowing the facts of his lordship being associated with the Nazis during the World War.&nbsp; Through the Trauma Theory this paper anatomizes the traumatic experiences of the mind, ramifications of thoughts and also the restrained dealings of human nature.This theory investigates the effect of trauma in writings and society, by examining its mental, logical, and social criticalness.The novel relocates the inherent presence of the theory throughplenteous incidents and contemplates on Stevens’ thoughts.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 M. Meghaa, Shobha Ramaswamy Rabindranath Tagore’s Philosophy of Spiritual Humanism and the Problems of Women Presented in the Novel ‘Nexus’ (Yogayog, 1929) 2020-11-30T10:30:58+00:00 Ritu Tandon <p>Spiritual humanism means thinking about the progress of human beings in all fields - social, cultural, political or economical and advocates that science and philosophy, art and literature, or anything that human beings have achieved by logical thinking and idealistic thoughts must aim at the well-being of humanity. Its principal aim is to achieve human freedom, cheerful life with development and prosperity without any kind of discrimination among human beings. Rabindranath Tagore was a great poet, dramatist, novelist, short-story writer, musician, painter, educationist, social reformer, philosopher, spiritualist and a critic of life and literature.&nbsp; &nbsp;He wrote about the problems of women in most of his works – whether it is a poem, novel, play or a short- story. Rabindranath Tagore’s novel ‘Nexus’(Yogayog,1929) is an important story of a married woman Kumudini’s struggle for freedom against the brutality of her cruel husband, Madhusudan. Here, Tagore’s evolving attitude towards the role of a married woman, Kumudini&nbsp; &nbsp;and her rebellious thoughts&nbsp;towards the domination of her husband are clearly presented in this novel. Rabindranath Tagore believed that the solution for all the problems of society lies in spreading the message of non-violence, truth, peace, love, and wisdom, which brings happiness among human beings. The present paper is an effort to investigate the major problems of married women of the nineteenth century Bengali society and the importance of Rabindranath Tagore’s philosophy of spiritual humanism&nbsp;in the emancipation of women, which made Tagore a multitalented novelist, writer and personality.</p> 2020-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ritu Tandon A Study of Human and Animal Imagery in the Poems of Ted Hughes 2020-11-30T10:38:43+00:00 Kumar Chandrahas <p>Ted Hughes (1930-1998) began his career as a poet with the publication of <em>The Hawk in the Rain</em> in 1957. He was labelled as “an animal poet”. The cause of disintegration in modern man is his cutting from the elemental nature of his own. Modern man appears to be Yeats’s ‘falcon’ (Yeats, line 2) that goes on decentring himself without cognition and getting absent-minded of the life-force, ‘the elemental power circuit of the universe’. Science and technology lead to reasoning, and reasoning leads to scepticism, and scepticism creeps into human brain (the egg-head) and causes man to question the validity of spirituality and morality. It is this which has been focussed in this article.</p> 2020-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Kumar Chandrahas Displacement and Narrative: The Desert as a Diasporic Space of Existence in the Goat Days by Benyamin 2020-12-01T08:19:47+00:00 Mariam John <p>Emerson in his essay ‘Experience’ brings forth the idea of the cosmological relation between the universe and the human being. What we perceive as truth is not the reality because it exists in space and it is not an absolute entity.&nbsp; But Life – from minute particles, sub atoms, plants, animals, humans – creates the environment and the universe. Universe is the complete spatio -temporal logic of the individual self. Thus from the mist to man-made things we try to understand and give meaning to ourselves and to the world around us.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mariam John Universal Vision in the Fiction of Ben Okri 2020-11-30T10:59:28+00:00 Srividya Nammi <p>Okri’s fiction is a mix of fantasy, realism and oral tradition of Africa. Though&nbsp; the&nbsp; trilogy&nbsp; nearly&nbsp; covers&nbsp; some&nbsp; fourteen&nbsp; hundred&nbsp; odd&nbsp; pages, it&nbsp; doesn’t&nbsp; have&nbsp; a&nbsp; proper&nbsp; beginning&nbsp; or&nbsp; end. Okri’s view of an unnamedAfrican ghetto, which is going to get independence, is presented in these novels. He is not&nbsp; giving&nbsp; solutions&nbsp; to&nbsp; the existing&nbsp; problems , he&nbsp; is simply&nbsp; presenting&nbsp; the&nbsp; true nature&nbsp; of&nbsp; an African&nbsp; state&nbsp; in an elusive manner. He narrates <em><u>The Famished Road </u></em>through the experiences of an ‘abiku’, Azaro, a seven year old child. He uses Azaro to narrate the&nbsp; chaotic&nbsp; state of&nbsp; affairs&nbsp; in&nbsp; an African&nbsp; state , and&nbsp; educates&nbsp; Azaro&nbsp; with&nbsp; the&nbsp; rich&nbsp; African&nbsp; culture in&nbsp; the form&nbsp; of stories&nbsp; told&nbsp; by his mother and&nbsp; father, and shows the real&nbsp; state of&nbsp; Africa&nbsp; in the&nbsp; form of photographs taken&nbsp; by the&nbsp; photographer, Jeremiah. Okri’s fiction has many layers of meaning which makes the task of analysis difficult. Though several labels like magical realism, Post-colonial, post-modern text are given the trilogy defies any particular definition. After examining his Trilogy thoroughly, it seems that Okri though elusive in his writings apparently wants a new – world. The Trilogy moves in the direction of anticipating a world fine tuned to harmonious living.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Srividya Nammi Science and Technology: An Aid in Building Human Resilience 2020-12-01T07:00:28+00:00 Dr. Sheeba Himani Sharma <p>Since inception, human race has always witnessed pandemics, disasters and wars, but it is the resilient spirit that has brought us this far. With each passing devastation, we rebuild ourselves and stand even stronger than before. Although there are numerous factors that help to inculcate resilience within humans, Science and Technology have ever remained faithful and have suggested promising ways using which we could combat our ‘unseen enemy’ today and even in the past. Today, at this hour, when the world is overburdened by the chaos of COVID-19, people are looking up to Science and Technology for the ways they can offer to eradicate this disease from the face of the earth. As it is rightly said, “Necessity is the mother of invention”, it can be safely concluded that Science and Technology are boosted by resilience. The human race has found the best of its innovations while undergoing some very troubled times. The current crisis in front of us is the situation now where the world has been segregated and people have been isolated. But thanks to technology that is knitting us close together. On the other hand, Science is playing its part to help discover effective drugs, improve human immunity and all this is being done to ensure the smooth running of human civilization. This paper intends to bring into view the notable contributions of Science and Technology that are today being used and exploited extensively in light of this pandemic outbreak.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Sheeba Himani Sharma Excavation of History and Narration of Subaltern Orality in the Short Stories of Mahasweta Devi 2020-12-01T08:38:15+00:00 Anuranj C K <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; line-height: 200%;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="color: black;">In 1979 Mahasweta Devi had written and published a short story collection in Bengali language. Later, the short story collection had been translated into English by Ipsita Chanda and published in 1998 under the title of&nbsp;<em>Bitter Soil</em>. This paper studies two short stories from this collection of translation, which entitled as&nbsp;<em>Little Ones</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Salt</em>&nbsp;respectively. Mahasweta Devi made tremendous contribution to literary, social and cultural studies in this country and she always believed that the real history is made by the ordinary people as she is also a political activist. Both these short stories represent the history of post independent India. Mahasweta Devi’s empirical research into oral history and haunting tales of exploitation and struggle as it lives in the cultures and reminiscences of tribal communities is highly relevant today. &nbsp;</span></p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Anuranj C K Resisting the Defeatism of Epidemic: A Critical Study of the Plague by Albert Camus 2020-12-02T11:34:42+00:00 Miss Arti Dr. Muzafar Ahmad Bhat <p>Most plague texts have their genesis in fact. <em>The Plague</em> is no exception. Therefore, to study the aesthetics of plague literature—or more particularly, the aesthetic constructs of destiny in plague literature—is to examine the process by which the factual reality of plague is first perceived and then translated by an author into a literary reality. A process that begins in perception—and indeed, the ancient Greeks defined aesthetics as perception—thus ends in representation; the plague text re-presents plague’s fact.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Miss Arti, Dr. Muzafar Ahmad Bhat