SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH <p><strong>SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH</strong> is a peer-reviewed (refereed) and open access journal<strong>.</strong> IJELLH is indexed with <strong> <a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl=";source=gmail&amp;ust=1576664770299000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEpmvLz85rDq7nHLXm3B9JKSvTL1w">Google Scholar</a></strong> and PKP Index. SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH has been granted new Online ISSN: 2582-3574 and Print ISSN: 2582-4406. The journal is published by SMART MOVES publications, Bhopal, India.</p> <p>The previously granted ISSN 2321-7065 was for the International Journal of English Language, Literature in Humanities (IJELLH), which was valid from June 2013 until November 2019. From November 2019 onwards, the new title of the journal will be SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH. IJELLH provides researchers with an online platform to publish their research work.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope for publication</strong></p> <p>The primary objective of IJELLH is to offer an online open-access platform for international researchers. IJELLH publishes articles on a broad spectrum of English Language, English Literature and Linguistics. The journal further covers various aspects of the research field and most of these are mentioned hereafter:</p> <p><strong> English Language</strong> – Grammar, Punctuation, Accent, Comparative Study, ELS (English as a second or foreign language), English language teachers training, Language teaching methodologies<strong> </strong>and other related topics.</p> <p><strong> English Literature</strong> – Fiction from Chaucerian Age to Post Colonial Age, Canadian Literature, Indian Literature &amp; many other topics related to Literature till date and related subject areas.</p> <p><strong> Linguistics</strong> – Linguistics is the scientific study of language. There are three aspects to this study: language form, language meaning and language in context. IJELLH publish following subject areas like Applied Linguistics, Language Acquisition, Language Documentation, Linguistic Theories, Philosophy of Language, Phonetics, Sociolinguistics, Text and Corpus Linguistics, Translating and Interpreting, Writing Systems and related subject areas.</p> <p> </p> en-US <p></p> (Sandeep) (JOHN) Sun, 28 Mar 2021 08:38:48 +0000 OJS 60 Merging Fact, Fiction and Myth: Reading TD Ramakrishnan’s Sugandhi Enna Aandaal Devanayaki as a Historiographic Metafiction <p>TD Ramakrishnan’s novel <em>Sugandhi Enna Aandaal </em>Devanayaki is a mixture of the mythological, metaphysical and historical into a fictional space which transcends the boundaries of nation. The novel is a quest for retelling the historical trauma of Sreelanka. In the search for Sugandhi a Tamil liberation activist, the narrator stumbles upon the mythical Sugandhi from the&nbsp;&nbsp; folklore, creating tension between faction and reality. In the search for the mythical Sugandhi Ramakrishnan uses ‘SusinaSupina’ and arrives at Devanayaki belonging to 7<sup>th</sup> century AD Pallava Dynasty.&nbsp;&nbsp; As fact, fiction and myth blur into the contemporary social space, the myth of Devanayaki merges with Rajani Thirinagame creating the notion of the alternate history from a female perspective. In the novel History blurs into myth, reality into fiction, contemporary into past, individual into society and body into spirit.TD Ramakrishnan deconstructs the millennium old Tamil- Sinhalese political history using the alternate history from mythology and folklore.&nbsp;&nbsp; This paper is an attempt to read the novel <em>Sugandhi Enna Aandaal</em>Devanayaki as a Historiographic metafiction.</p> Subin Varghese Copyright (c) 2021 Subin Varghese Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Echo of a Modernist Voice in Reference to Kafka’s The Metamorphosis: Change as Constant and Humanity as Memory <p>This paper intends to place Kafka as a modernist by identifying certain aspects in <em>The Metamorphosis</em>. Kafka as a voice of modernism came into prominence mostly with his posthumous publications where he made a metaphorical representation of the deep seated realities of time. <em>The Metamorphosis</em> is about a commercial traveller, fatigued by the tiresome journey, who turns into monstrous vermin and the respite comes to his family and himself once he is eliminated. Kafka as usually does not clearly come up with the details of the gigantic insect that Gregor has turned into, rather he keeps it for the readers to find out by talking to each other, against each other and to themselves. Gregor is monstrous in appearance as he is perceived by others and himself but within, he is a victim who has been crushed under the monstrous wheels of capitalist world. It is only after becoming a gigantic insect, Gregor reveals everything about himself and his surrounding either in form of reminiscence or with his observation. One may find some sort of umbilical cord existing between Kafka and Gregor as Kafka himself was a poor creature whose back leg is stuck in the Judaism while his front leg, in vain, quested for a new ground, but that idea cannot be the only guiding beacon in comprehending Kafka and his works. Writing in the first half of twentieth-century in the rapidly changing world, the story <em>The Metamorphosis</em> carries in itself all that makes it worth considering among all other Kafka’s work.</p> Sulagna Panda Copyright (c) 2021 Sulagna Panda Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 When the Real Ceases to Exist: Reading the Realm of the Hyperreal in Unni R.’s “Ozhivudivasathe Kali” <p>In the postmodern condition a sign does not indicate an underlying reality but other signs and thus the whole system becomes ‘simulation’. Jean Baudrillard the French sociologist, cultural critic and postmodern theorist, in his 1981 work <em>Simulacra and Simulations</em> discusses about what is usually known as ‘the loss of the real’. In the contemporary world the distinction between reality and illusion, surface and depth are completely lost. The media mediated world of reality that we perceive today is all a hyperreality. We confront illusions all around us and without which we feel unable to live. What we take in for granted is something that is created for the purpose of to be perceived. All these made up realities become texts as well. In an age of mass production, mass consumption and mass communication the terms ‘hyperreality’ and ‘simulation’ signify the virtual or unreal nature of the present day culture. Baudrillard’s philosophy centers on these concepts. It is a basic part of human existence to simulate, to imagine scenarios and possible outcomes.</p> Alaka Theres Babu Copyright (c) 2021 Alaka Theres Babu Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Blurred Borders between Fact and Fantasy: A Critique of Hannah Arendt’s “Defactualization” in a Subtly Self-aggrandizing and Overtly Deceiving “Post-Truth Era” <p>The term “post –truth”, that is believed to have made its maiden appearance in a 1992 essay, pertaining to the Iran-Contra Scandal and Persian Gulf War, garnered widespread popularity, in the form of "post-truth politics" recently on account of the 2016 U.S. presidential election and the U.K. Brexit referendum. In fact, it was a political culture in which public opinions and media narratives have become almost entirely disconnected from the substance and policy of legislation. Interestingly such a relatively recent concept that has been vaulted up in an age of Twitter threads and viral news has its roots in post-modernity, relativism, even in the philosophical notions of Nietzsche, Weber, Leo Strauss, Foucault and Derrida, who were inevitably sceptical of the division between facts and values.</p> Adeela Velapurath Nazeer Copyright (c) 2021 Adeela Velapurath Nazeer Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Racial Identity in Post-Apartheid South Africa: J.M. Coetzee’s Disgrace <p>J.M. Coetzee is a South African novelist, critic and an active translator of Dutch and Afrikaans literature. His novels are conspicuous for their well- crafted composition, pregnant dialogues and analytical brilliance. Coetzee’s earlier novels question the apartheid regime, while his later works offer an apocalyptic vision of post- apartheid South Africa. His major works include <em>Disgrace, Waiting for the Barbarians, Life and Times of Michael K, Boyhood, Age of Iron and The Childhood of Jesus. </em>In 1999, Coetzee has been the recipient of numerous awards throughout his career, although he has a reputation for avoiding award ceremonies. Coetzee became the first author to be twice awarded the Booker Prize, winning it as second time for <em>Disgrace </em>which portrays the post-apartheid society. Coetzee went on to win the Nobel Prize for literature in 2003 for his entire body of works. During the years of apartheid, he was at the forefront of the anti-apartheid movement among writers. Scholar Isadore Dalia labelled J.M Coetzee as one of the most distinguished white writers with an anti-apartheid sentiment. Coetzee’s earlier novels question the apartheid regime, while his later works offer an apocalyptic vision of post- apartheid South Africa. <em>Disgrace</em> can be analyzed as a representative work of the new south Africa where the social problems relating binary oppositions such as black- white, white- immigrant, powerless- powerful, are stressed. This paper attempts to show through the protagonist, David Lurie, that the way to adapt to the changes in the country is to make a fresh start, a way to adapt to the new times, where no ideas of the old are retained. Frantz Fanon’s concepts within the field of post colonialism which he articulated in <em>Black Skin, White Masks</em> (1967) and <em>The Wretched of the Earth </em>(1963) have much relevance in <em>Disgrace. </em>The objective of this paper is to stretch his new ideas in a new direction by applying his theories on nation and culture onto a white subject Lurie, a white native South African. In the light of Fanon’s text, <em>The Wretched of the Earth</em> it can be argued that following the revolutionary political changes in South Africa in 1994, the former colonizer can be seen in the same way as the colonized usually is: a powerless native, regardless of racial identity.</p> Roshni Joyson, Dr. Cynthia Catherine Michael Copyright (c) 2021 Roshni Joyso, Dr. Cynthia Catherine Michael Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Nature Influencing Characters- An Analysis of the Malayalam Movie Iyobinte Pusthakam <p>Space and place are two complex concepts in literature. These can in turn affect the course of characters, situations and the plot of story. Presently in visual media, especially in movies; a relation between nature and surroundings can be traced. Both nature and surroundings influence each other. Malayalam cinema is going through many different paths which are always open for study. Each movie in it is incomparable in plot, techniques and narration. A relation between surroundings and characters can always be drawn. Keith H. Basso is an important cultural anthropologist who found a noticeable connection between nature and human beings. Nature always creates mystery and wonder. Nature always has a great influence in the human evolution and culture formation. Tagore’s ‘The Religion of Forest’ says the link between forest and ancient Indian culture. In the same essay, Tagore represents the European belief on nature as a war between good and evil. ‘IyobintePustham’ is analysed in both these views. The forest depicted in the movie can be interpreted as a provider and protector to its character. In another sense, it mirrors the goodness and the evils in the mind of characters. Forest is an important archetype in human history and culture.</p> Merin Josephine A., Dr. Cynthia Catherine Michael Copyright (c) 2021 Merin Josephine A, Dr. Cynthia Catherine Michael Sun, 28 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ethno Archaeology as Embedded History: The Kerala Experience <p>Ethno archaeology is a branch of archaeology developed in Western world and ethno archaeologist began to use ethnographic parallels for explaining archaeological evidences from 1950’s onwards. Ethnoarchaeology essentially involves archaeologists living with peoples still generating the sort of residues found in the archaeological record and then using their modern data to suggest how things may have happened in the past.</p> Dr. Manjula Poyil Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Manjula Poyil Sat, 27 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Celebrating ‘Indian's’ in Shashi Deshpande’s The Dark Holds No Terrors and The Roots and Shadows <p>The aim of this paper is an attempt that Indian cultural values should be revised meticulously and&nbsp;&nbsp; accurately leaving behind western impact and the paper rides on a new pride, as a revival of inspiration, a recuperation from centuries of British domination of India in which Hindu dignity was systematically undermined through the Macaulay education system and the invasion of Mogul. Values are what human beings live by. The value-system of any given culture determines the sense of fulfillment and degree of happiness of its members. Indian value system had been misinterpreted from the point of view of the west and imposed&nbsp; on the psyche of Indian women&nbsp; through new education. The new education has gradually made her conscious of futility or emptiness of the various long-preserved notions and taboos about the woman, and she has started opposing and breaking them. And this crusade at times makes her feel alone&nbsp; and alienated. Their conscious had been colonized according to the impact of western. Nevertheless, it is high time that contemporary Indian women are in position to realize their roots, meaning of life and great value system of India. Hence, tradition is the best of the past that has been carried forward for the future.</p> K. Maheswari Copyright (c) 2021 K. Maheswari Sat, 27 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Miranda: King Prospero’s Heart and Prosperous Beauty <p>Miranda is the dear daughter of&nbsp; &nbsp;king Prospero.&nbsp; She is the only daughter of the king.&nbsp;&nbsp; She understands the&nbsp; human&nbsp; values&nbsp; though&nbsp; she&nbsp; had&nbsp; to&nbsp; live&nbsp; with&nbsp; her&nbsp; father&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; secluded&nbsp; island.&nbsp; When&nbsp; she&nbsp; was&nbsp; watching&nbsp; the&nbsp; sinking&nbsp; crews&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; ship&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp;&nbsp; tempestuous&nbsp; waves&nbsp; of&nbsp; ocean,&nbsp; her&nbsp; heart&nbsp; begins&nbsp; to&nbsp; wavering&nbsp; if&nbsp; they&nbsp; will&nbsp; die&nbsp; or&nbsp; not.&nbsp; She&nbsp; cannot &nbsp;see&nbsp; the&nbsp; passengers&nbsp; hue&nbsp; and&nbsp; cry.&nbsp; Being&nbsp; a&nbsp; loyal&nbsp; daughter,&nbsp; she&nbsp; begs&nbsp; her&nbsp; father&nbsp; to&nbsp; save&nbsp; the&nbsp; passengers&nbsp; with&nbsp; his&nbsp; supernatural&nbsp; powers. Prospero’s&nbsp; deep&nbsp; love&nbsp; for&nbsp; Miranda&nbsp; is&nbsp; perhaps&nbsp; striking,&nbsp; so&nbsp; he&nbsp; says&nbsp; that&nbsp; the&nbsp; passengers&nbsp; will&nbsp; not&nbsp; be&nbsp; harmed&nbsp; but&nbsp; be&nbsp; realized&nbsp; what&nbsp; the&nbsp; grave&nbsp; situation&nbsp; is.&nbsp; The&nbsp; ’rich&nbsp; gift’&nbsp; of&nbsp; Prospero&nbsp; later&nbsp; falls&nbsp; in&nbsp; love&nbsp; with&nbsp; Ferdinand&nbsp; at&nbsp; the&nbsp; first&nbsp; sight&nbsp; whom&nbsp; Ariel&nbsp; isolated&nbsp; from&nbsp; the&nbsp; other&nbsp; members&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; crews&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; ship&nbsp; and&nbsp; brought&nbsp; to&nbsp; Prospero’s&nbsp; cell.&nbsp; Here,&nbsp; Miranda’s&nbsp; romantic&nbsp; showers&nbsp; begin&nbsp; to&nbsp; fall&nbsp; upon&nbsp; Ferdinand.&nbsp; She&nbsp; shows&nbsp; herself&nbsp; to&nbsp; be&nbsp; a&nbsp; passionate&nbsp; lover&nbsp; as&nbsp; does&nbsp; Ferdinand&nbsp; too.&nbsp; The&nbsp; intensity&nbsp; of her&nbsp; love&nbsp; begins&nbsp; to&nbsp; increase.&nbsp; The&nbsp; impulses &nbsp;that&nbsp; have&nbsp; been&nbsp; palpitating&nbsp; in&nbsp; her&nbsp; heart&nbsp; deeply&nbsp; and&nbsp; passionately&nbsp; taking&nbsp; about&nbsp; the&nbsp; prince&nbsp; Ferdinand&nbsp; are&nbsp; nothing&nbsp; but&nbsp; ‘’Eve&nbsp; of&nbsp; an&nbsp; enchanted&nbsp; Paradise’’.</p> Mr. Nandeswar Deori Copyright (c) 2021 Mr. Nandeswar Deori Sat, 27 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Image of New Woman as Portrayed in Jhumpa Lahiri’s Novel The Lowland <p>The last decade of the Victorian era witnessed a major shift in the social attitude of the&nbsp;woman. It was a break away from the patriarchal system, and women emerging as independent being and moving towards achieving gender equality. The ‘New Woman’ is considered as a precursor to the feminist movement and thus the legacy of New Woman lives on to this day. Jhumpa Lahiri, the significant writer of the Indian diaspora has emerged on the global literary scene with her remarkable writings. The novel has a compelling plot of family relations. It delineates the tender fraternal bond between Subhash and Udayan and how it gets affected by the various paths they chose in their lives. This intensely emotional tale unfolds diverse dimensions of the woman caught in the predicament of conservative cultural practices at home, political unrest in society and the life of an exile in the immigrant land. It also explores Gauri’s expression of identity, her struggle with love, Bela’s choice for individuality and pragmatism in life has turned the novel into a unique narrative. In her second novel, ‘The Lowland’ Jhumpa portrays her women characters devaluing the patriarchal setup. They break the myths of womanhood and motherhood. Prominence is given to assert their position in society by restoring self-identity than nurturing deeper family relations. They fight with courage and confront various challenges in their marital relationship.</p> D. Kavitha , Prof. M. Neeraja Copyright (c) 2021 D. Kavitha, Prof. M. Neeraja Sat, 27 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Evaluative Study of the Educational Philosophy and Contribution of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan <p>Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the most resplendent personalities of the 19th century. Altogether a theologian, scholar, social reformer, educationist he was a rare combination of Muslim talents in India. He was an intellectual giant who stood for dynamic movements of society. He molded the destiny of the nation and established the supremacy of India in many matters - worldly and spiritual, liberty of conscience and freedom of expression, hard work and struggle to make up the way. He had his own educational philosophy and a dream to establish an institution which could impart western education on oriental lines. This dream was actualized by establishing the Aligarh Muslim University.</p> Dr. Shalini Rastogi Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Shalini Rastogi Sat, 27 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Aesthetics of Rupture: Deconstructing Rasa <p>Semantic fixity is a transcendental signified. One of the touted aims of literary theory was to topple it. The Indian semantic concept of Vyañjana attempted to do this millennia before. But canonical theories of Rasa established Rasananda as an attainment of absolute coherence and harmony. What this paper calls trans-epistemic praxis is a viable methodology to reclaim the long-lost rupturality (if structurality is resisted, rupturality must be embraced, at least as a neologism) inherent to aesthetics. This is done in a Post-theory context. “Bhanga” (rupturing) leads to “bhangi”, aesthetic charm. It is an aporetic textual disruption that leads to the most fertile indeterminacy of meaning. Modern literary theory set out on a debunking and destabilizing mission of liberal humanist tenets, but got hardened into “doxa”, crystallized structures and hierarchies. This necessitated a theorizing of theory itself. The chronotope of Post-theory gets foregrounded. A crossing of spatio-temporal boundaries gives us the freedom to site Rasa Theory and Indian Poetics as Post-theoretical. Inter-spaces and inter-times are engendered. Deconstruction and Rasa become heterodoxic knowledges to each other, subverting each other honouring the alterity of the other. This exercise liberates Theory from becoming sclerotic. Orthodoxics and monologisms get flouted. Theory is a story. Story is built on the figurality of language. The tropology of language is built on a never-ending desire for signification. This desire never meets with satiation. The concept of “Rati” can be seen as this interminable desire of language. Post-theory is a call to wake up from amnesia, the terrible oblivion regarding the fact that Deconstruction and Rasa are ceaseless streams of reading processes and not rigid and straitjacketed end products. This ruptural aesthetics leads to the rapture of poeisis, the indeterminate significatory process.</p> Dr. Siby James Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Siby James Sat, 27 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Literary Inquiry into Disability, Trauma and Narrative Strategies in Lisa Genova’s Novels <p>The reaisltic illustration of central characters suffering from rare and severe neurological sicknesses in Lisa Genova’s novels provide an ideal prospect to study trauma in pathography novels, a subset of science fiction. However, despite its scope, these genres of novels have received little consideration in American literary trauma studies. This paper will present a new analysis of trauma in relationship to the ‘neuro’genre, followed by an analysis of narrative and literary devices employed by the author to illustrate traumatic episodes in her novels. Through this case study and critical reflection of how the author has engaged trauma in the novels supports strengthening literary trauma theory within trauma literature and the genre also. The writing of traumatic experiences of the victims, transformed identity, stigmas, fears and phobias and providing face to the sufferer doomed fate, offers an opportunity for a neuroscientist turned novelist like Lisa Genova to advocate about the neurological sicknesses and its suffering with enriched empathetic experience to the non-scientific societies. It also provides a balanced realistic narrative platform for the reader to reflect on their own uncertainties, brought on by the representation of such fictional characterization. This literary research analysis will provide scope to science fiction authors, particularly those aiming to engage with medicine and literature, for a more accurate depiction of trauma in their work. It will further broaden the scope of research in phenomenology, narrative and genre theories and criticism in literary studies.&nbsp;</p> Mrs. Koyyana Pallavi , Prof. Y. Somalatha Copyright (c) 2021 Mrs. Koyyana Pallavi , Mrs. Koyyana Pallavi Sat, 27 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Spaces, Semantics, and ‘Aesthetic Faculty’: Perspectives on Their Operative Plane of Concurrence, Constitution and Becoming <p>This paper aims to look at one of the fundamental factors of human beings—the appreciation of things. Calling it ‘the aesthetic faculty’ this paper tries to see how it is inevitable to the way human beings as a species function. This paper aims to propose this idea of an ‘aesthetic faculty’ as a potential basis for our community life in its diverse operations in terms of cultural spaces and their semantics. Viewing the socio-systemic life from the point of view from the aesthetic faculty reveals how appreciation and evaluation are inevitable to human life and how an ideological ground cannot actually affect life without addressing this basic human faculty. This paper tries to take the term ‘aesthetic’ vis-a-vis ‘appreciation’ to a different semantic world altogether so that it is no longer a matter of artistic engagements alone, but something more fundamental and formative than that.</p> Dhanesh M. Copyright (c) 2021 Dhanesh M. Sat, 27 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Eco Meluha: An Ecocritical Reading of Amish Tripathi’s The Immortals of Meluha <p>The term ‘ecocriticism’ was coined by William Rueckert in 1978 and it was popularized by Cheryll Glotfelty through her 1996 work <em>The Ecocriticism Reader. </em>According to her, ecocriticism is the study of the relationship between literature and nature or the physical environment. Ecocriticism later turned out to be a pivotal area in literary theory. The theory posits that human beings are inherently related to nature. They are dependent on nature in one way or another. For example, air, water, food etc. are inevitable aspects for man. In the same way, nature too is dependent on man.</p> Abel Justine Copyright (c) 2021 Abel Justine Sat, 27 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Luminaries in Shadows: Women in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness <p>Joseph Conrad’s novella Heart of Darkness is a popular modernist work which has often been implored for racist undercurrents. The characterisation of women in the novella remains frail and severely restricted. However, the seemingly mute and insignificant figures of the narrative are an ‘absent presence’ which shapes and directs Marlow’s spiritual quest into the “heart of darkness”. The novella is a text which captures the feminist ethos rising in the contemporary British society as an invisibly powerful undercurrent.</p> Dr. Shreeja Tripathi Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Shreeja Tripathi Sharma Sat, 27 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Decoding Cli-Fi Dynamics in Barbara Kingsolver’s Flight Behaviour <p><em>Flight Behaviour</em>is an integration of many important issues that humanity faces today like climate change, global warming, species extinction, and the advent of the age of Anthropocene. The novel is set in rural Tennessee and it explores the reaction of a bible belt community to the arrival of millions of monarch butterflies on the mountains of their hometown. This astonishing phenomenon is branded as a miracle by the townsfolk but the arrival of a research team reveals the troubling truth behind the butterflies’ presence. They have been driven away from their usual Mexican winter grounds because of devastating mudslides and flooding that affected the area. Kingsolver, in simple words, expresses the alarming reality of how changing climate affects biodiversity and leads many species to the verge of extinction. She artfully links the monarch’s struggle for survival with the protagonist’s search for identity, independence and self-expression.</p> Ashna Francis Copyright (c) 2021 Ashna Francis Sat, 27 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Representation of Women in Popular Indian Movies : An Analysis of English Vinglish and Heroine <p>Male supremacy and patriarchy has become two clichéd words, but it is a fact that these two words define almost all societies in the world. Indian society is no different from this, in fact this is where these two words fit in smoothly. This is reflected in our literature, art and movies too. My enquiry here is about how do the preconceived notions about feminity find their way into popular movies. The article analyzes two popular Hindi movies:<em> English Vinglish</em> and <em>Heroine</em>. These two movies portray two women who are very different from each other ; a house wife and an actress. But many a times these two women are one and the same in terms of the attitude of the society towards them. Therefore the paper intends to reveal the double standards and hypocrisy of Indian society.</p> Auju OK Copyright (c) 2021 Auju Ok Sat, 27 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Convergence of Biology and Gender Identity: A Study of Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eyes <p>The concept of gender and the related practices are born at the intersection of biology and politics. Biological markers; physical, physiological and psychological are politicized for hierarchical positioning of man and woman. The nexus between biology and politics has also generated the notion of ‘immutability’ of woman’s ‘gendered self’. Women too, having interiorized the inferiority of the self unquestioningly and have shown little inclination to redefine her-‘self’ after having accepted the nature’s role in her physical and physiological formation. The inability for better ‘self’ definition is also due to the failure to distinguish the exact point of confluence between biology and politics in the socially ascribed gender identities. Caught in the imbroglio woman has suffered crippled social and psychological consequences and the same is well substantiated in the novel <em>The Bluest Eye</em> by African American writer Toni Morrison. The women characters in the novel are paradigms of real life situations. While some do acutely suffer from social and psychological deprivation having interiorized the inferiority of their biological markers, others handle affirmatively the socially ascribed deprivations of their physical self by understanding the nexus between biology and cultural politics. The novel successfully explores the fact that distinct anatomical difference between man and woman or the biological identities of humans should not be the cause or source of discriminatory practices. Or in other words the novel denies the inferiority of woman as something&nbsp; hermetically sealed and that social factors; advantages of birth (like race and social class), socio-cultural pressures, cultivation of mental culture and many more are of great consequence for both the formation of ‘positive self- identity’ by woman&nbsp; and for challenging of gender significations.</p> Dr. Vanamala S.M. Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Vanamala S.M. Sat, 27 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000