SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH <p><strong>SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH</strong> is a peer-reviewed (refereed) and open access journal<strong>.</strong> IJELLH is indexed with <strong> <a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl=";source=gmail&amp;ust=1576664770299000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEpmvLz85rDq7nHLXm3B9JKSvTL1w">Google Scholar</a></strong> and PKP Index. SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH has been granted new Online ISSN: <a href="">2582-3574</a> and Print ISSN: <a title="2582-4406" href="">2582-4406</a>. The journal is published by SMART MOVES publications, Bhopal, India.</p> <p>The previously granted ISSN <a href="">2321-7065</a> was for the International Journal of English Language, Literature in Humanities (IJELLH), which was valid from June 2013 until November 2019. From November 2019 onwards, the new title of the journal will be SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH. IJELLH provides researchers with an online platform to publish their research work.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope for publication</strong></p> <p>The primary objective of IJELLH is to offer an online open-access platform for international researchers. IJELLH publishes articles on a broad spectrum of English Language, English Literature and Linguistics. The journal further covers various aspects of the research field and most of these are mentioned hereafter:</p> <p><strong> English Language</strong> – Grammar, Punctuation, Accent, Comparative Study, ELS (English as a second or foreign language), English language teachers training, Language teaching methodologies<strong> </strong>and other related topics.</p> <p><strong> English Literature</strong> – Fiction from Chaucerian Age to Post Colonial Age, Canadian Literature, Indian Literature &amp; many other topics related to Literature till date and related subject areas.</p> <p><strong> Linguistics</strong> – Linguistics is the scientific study of language. There are three aspects to this study: language form, language meaning and language in context. IJELLH publish following subject areas like Applied Linguistics, Language Acquisition, Language Documentation, Linguistic Theories, Philosophy of Language, Phonetics, Sociolinguistics, Text and Corpus Linguistics, Translating and Interpreting, Writing Systems and related subject areas.</p> <p> </p> en-US <p></p> (Sandeep) (JOHN) Mon, 14 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Psycho-Social Impact as a Theme in the Novel Joseph Anton: A Memoir <p><em>The text Joseph Anton: A Memoir</em>highlights the theme of psycho-social impact on Rusdhie due to the reaction of the publication of his novel <em>The Satanic Verses</em> (1988), the need to have freedom of expression and speech and the prevailing socio-political has driven him to forced exile and the prevailing socio-political situation that has driven him to forced exile and aftermath of his psychological depression resulting from alienation of <em>fatwa</em>. It mainly focuses on how Rushdie is affected psychologically and emotionally by<em> fatwa</em>. It deals with his life experiences. There is psychological validity behind Rushdie’s delineation of rootlessness and sense of unhappy frustration resulting mainly from social milieu.</p> J. Justus Selva Renisha Copyright (c) 2018 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Derek Walcott’s The Sea is History: An Archive <p>History is an ideological construct of colonialism. An archive is a storehouse of historical documents or records. The present paper is an attempt to explore an alternative history created by&nbsp;&nbsp; Derek Walcott, the West Indian poet and playwright&nbsp;&nbsp; whose works explore the Caribbean culture. He presents the history through the art of poetry while answering the questions - <em>Where are your monuments, your battles, martyrs? Where is your tribal memory?Where is your Renaissance? </em>Asked inthepoem <em>TheSeaisHistory</em>. Walcott shows the history of slavery, genocide and miscegenation with allusions. His poetry resonates Fanon’s remark, “The settler makes history: his life is an epoch, an Odyssey.”</p> Falguni Bharateeya Copyright (c) 2018 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Blue Umbrella as an adaptation: A Comparative Study between Fiction and Film <p>Ruskin bond’s novella, the blue umbrella is a story of ten years old girl Binya and her umbrella.&nbsp; The novella <em>The Blue Umbrella</em> is an exploration of basic human desires, yet it fulfills its journey through a simplistic discourse, deeply poignant. As Jean Mitry puts in the “Remarks on the Problem of Cinematic Adaptation” that adaptation “is a matter of passing from one form to another, a matter of transportation, of reconstruction” (Mitry 1971). While adapting any work of literature into a film, there always remain some possibilities of the distortion of message. It happens so because of the series of mutations that takes place in the process of film making at all the creative levels, starting from scripting, to narrating, to shooting, to editing - in every stage there are chances of message distortion. The novella was adapted into a film of the same name by VishalBhardwaj. As a novella, the story was popular among children for years, and as a film also it gained attention of audience and critics. But still the question arises- how far the film is faithful adaptation, all the characters are given same space or not, the message of the novella distorted or not etc. In this paper we will try to find out answer of those questions along with the aesthetics of film making like style, tone, structure, metaphor, symbol etc.</p> Pawan Toppo Copyright (c) 2018 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Mediatization and Linguistic Change: Some musings to ponder <p>Language is subject to change according to the spirit of the age. Accordingly, the present period is one that is closely attuned to the new generation media. Today one could categorize television, internet and the mobile phone as the latest media. These constitute the ‘un-expendable’ amenities/essentials in day-to-day life these days. It could be seen that these media has undoubtedly a power to create a distinct language and culture within each society. This authority exuded by the new gen media is enhanced by the technological backdrop in which they are powered off. Even though technology and media has influenced the language and culture of mankind at all times, the influence of it in the present is unprecedented.</p> <p>It is interesting that the language of written literature has given way to a specific kind of cyber literature. The internet has been able to digitalize even the orthodox art forms, giving them a different identity. Digital library gave birth to a novel model of dissemination of information. The introduction of ‘unicode font’ breaks through the notion that English is the only language hosted by the net. This font is a mixture of the technical language of the net with that of regional linguistic variations. The different language blogs also point to the vast options in expressing one’s experiences. The flexibility in linguistic use also has given way to the introduction of the ‘globish’ language, which facilitates the most convenient use of English.&nbsp; This article intends to make an in-depth study of how the linguistic changes that have taken place in our society as a result of mediatization has affected us.</p> Deepa Thomas Copyright (c) 2018 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Use of Prayers in Girish Karnad’s Tughlaq <p>Girish Karnad, ‘Tughlaq’, a brilliant but spectacularly unsuccessful fourteenth century Islamic sultan of Delhi knew popularly ‘Mad Muhammad’. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was second and most remarkable ruler of Tughlaq dynasty. He was the first Sultan to have the vision to see India as a whole country, and not just as a sort of cake for every ambitious aspiration to carve a kingdom out of it. After the tragic death of his father Ghias-ud-din<em>,</em> in 1325, soon declares himself as a sultan of Delhi under the title of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. Muhammad was, without any doubt, the most educated of all Muslim rulers who ruled in Delhi. Muhammad was a deeply religious man and had learnt <em>Holy Quran</em> by heart. He used to quote verse of the <em>Quran</em> during his conversation. Karnad’s uses many symbols in the play but prayer has been use for many dramatic purposed. His use prayer in murder of his father, brother, Sheikh Shams-ud-din, Imam-ud-din, his step mother, etc. also as politic.</p> Thiyam Naoba Singh Copyright (c) 2018 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Hybridity As Resistance In Khaled Hosseini’s Thousand Splendid Suns <p>Khaled &nbsp;Hosseini’s <em>Thousand Splendid Suns</em> depicts the realistic life background of women in Afganisthan, whose life lies shattered with in multiple laws and divided rules. Reflecting the impact of instability in women’s life around the disrupted political and cultural scenario in Afghanistan., the novel show cases the evolution of woman life from the state of passive repression to un conditional level of resistance amidst the baffled state&nbsp; of existance.The paper focuses on two women characters, Mariam and Laila, the women representing two generation and intends to showcase the effect of hybrid existence in these characters life. Adopting Homi.k Baba’s concept of hybridity, the hybrid existence in the study is not between the binaries of oppressor and oppressed, instead between mutually reliant identities whose cultural taming of identity establishment and ideological perception&nbsp; contradict each other. Hybrid existence of these woman characters &nbsp;results in shaping of a new identity which&nbsp; elevates them from the state of subjugated&nbsp; passive, &nbsp;where their life of submissiveness guaranteed by their cultural continuation is challenged.</p> Reshmi Ravindran P Copyright (c) 2018 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Nature and Narrative: Understanding the Nuances of Nature through Native American Literature <p>The Native American or the American Indians are the indigenous people of the continent and their literature reflects the traditional oral and written literature with extensive set of folktales, myths and oral histories that were transmitted by storytellers through centuries. Although they differ from mainstream literatures in themes, concerns and ideas; what is inherently significant in them is their approach to ‘Nature’. While Euro- American literatures are in a race, rather a competition with nature, Native Americans are seen living in harmony with it. Unlike mainstream literature, Native realise their dreams of culture and society in nature. Even Wordsworth the representative poet of nature has only utilised it in his ideology of Pantheism. In Hemingway, nature is predominant but only a facilitator for realisation of sublime self of the protagonist and characters. So is it in Eugene O’ Neil, Emerson and Whitman. But, Native American canon has seen Nature as an animate being, as sacred as life itself. Their reverence for land, faith in cardinal directions, importance of word, echoes of silence and spiritual beliefs in purpose of life finds unsurpassable semblance in their written literature through myths and folktales. These folktales not only carry the identity of race with them, but the underlying messages in such tales often convey the idea of conserving nature. Native American literature hence draws attention to nature in different lights and elicits why it is important to go back to them, in order to conserve what is left. This paper aims to delve into American Indian notions of nature and substantiate the idea further by tracing a few analogies from both oral and written forms such as the works of Renaissance writers like Scott Momoday and Leslie Marmon Silko with the theory of eco criticism</p> Anjitha G Copyright (c) 2018 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Re-Vision of Myths In Post-Colonial Indian English Drama As An Avenue For The Empowerment Of Women <p>Literature is one of the devices of articulating culture whereby culture gets recognised through the adaptation of myths. The revision of myths has received unparalleled recognition as a discourse through which identity and relations of power are constructed and negotiated. Myth has been an innate and pivotal part of culture since antiquity. The reliability on ancient myths has been decisive to the level that the progress of a culture in a certain age could be amply sketched through the interpretations of myths. The postcolonial studies share a concern with the creation of novel and more empowering subjectivities for the women who have traditionally been casted as subaltern. The conformist narrative styles are too firm to challenge structural patterns. Thus the revision of myths is an endeavor to annihilate the misrepresentation of female subjectivity in myths. It also helps to offer fresh connotations to the myths, the meanings of which are shared by the society. Two of the most prominent post-colonial dramatists Girish Karnad, Chandrashekhar Kambar and Arun Mukherjee in their respective plays Yayati, Siri Sampige and Mareech, the Legend have succeeded in demystifying the feminine mystique created in the myths which distorted the concept of the Indian woman as an individual. These plays outline the course of the construction of female subjectivity which has continued right from the beginning of time.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Priyanka Chandel Copyright (c) 2018 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Types of Feedback For Effective Teaching In English Classroom <p>The current paper discusses on types of Feedback which play an essential role in aligning teaching, learning and assessment. Most of the teacher’s feel embarrassing to get feedback from the students due to various reasons may be insulted, proud even if they know the fact that feedback improves the potentiality of the each individual. In this paper I am going to focus upon the various kinds of feedback with few examples. Further the paper focuses on introducing the feedback system in the language classroom for the assessmentof teacher on learning outcomes of the students which are observed by the students, In the classroom feedback functions as to create and maintain a meaningfor the teachers and students alike through a reinforcement of the purpose of assessment that relates to learning outcomes.</p> B. Jaheer Copyright (c) 2018 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Need of Forming a Comprehensive Odia-English Linguistic Inventory <p>This paper attempts at presenting a proposal for the review of teaching and learning of English in Odisha in the light of multilingualism. The factors hindering communicative competence and performance should not be undermined. There should be continuous effort to form a commonly accepted comprehensive Odia-English linguistic inventory which must include the interlingual translation of the words, sentences and common expressions of all the coastal, western, southern and northern Odisha with their respective variations in systems of morphological, semantic, syntactic and pragmatic norms and then the equivalent English translation needs to be formulated so as to be used both for academic and professional purposes. The paper gives some word and sentence level models collected from empirical evidences and propose that the inventory needs to guide to point out influence of mother tongue (MTI) while learning English. This would definitely help measuring linguistic compatibility between Odia and English, code-switching and code-mixing, bilingual proficiency, interlanguage factors too.</p> Pratap Kumar Dash Copyright (c) 2018 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Hypocritical Attitudes Rooted In Fear Contrasted With Innocence That Is Forgiving Without Pomp, In The Story “Big Brother” By Prem Chand <p>In this story “BIG BROTHER”, we enter the CHILDREN’S world, especially &nbsp;the relationship between brothers. Here is an elder brother, who finds it innately difficult to study, mainly because he has developed a deep-rooted fear and awe of the subjects of study. He is not inherently free and that is why his brain does not function. Yet he cannot accept that. He has that inner need to justify his lack and position himself as superior. He does that by subtle bullying and exploitation of his younger, lively, fearless brother.</p> <p>The story is gently ironic, and you can see how the simple story speaks volumes which, if one attempted to write as essays, would maybe fill a library.</p> <p>Here is the role of fear, comparison, innocence and its link to studies, the mistaken belief that studies make you superior. Here is also a foretelling of the future with such attitudes. The bully in childhood becomes a conformist and the innocent becomes a fresh spring and talented in later life.</p> Dr A.C.V. Ramakumar, Copyright (c) 2018 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Journey Towards the Self: A Study of Amitav Ghosh’s The Hungry Tide in an Ecocritical Perspective <p>This paper attempts to study <em>The Hungry Tide </em>by Amitav Ghosh from anecocritical perspective. The researcher identifies the journey of the characters in the novel towards nature as a metaphorical symbol to the journey in discovering the self. The conflict between the people and the environment is the only obstacle during the journey of the characters in the novel. The characters experience the conflict between the environment and people through observation and at the same time, self-realisation. This paper also identifies the author's concern for nature through the fictional characters in the novel Piyali Roy, a cetologist and Fokir, a local fisherman.In anecocritical perspective, this paper sees the disturbances that the nature experience as a harm towards nature and its progression.</p> A Aravinth Raja Copyright (c) 2018 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Comic Genius in Shaw’s Drama <p>George Bernard Shaw (1856 - 1950) the socialist, politician, economist, social reformer and the Nobel Laureate playwright, is one of the most venerable authors in the history of literature in general and the theater in particular. He is a great laughter making and thinking motivator, where his comedies always revealed the values of the time. His plays are enjoyable and resonating until today. In this respect, the current article aims to explore Shaw’s comic genius and his contributions to the art of comedy as a leading dramatist of the twentieth century. It reveals how he employs jokes and humour to deliver his philosophy and his intellectual judgment on life in a clever and amusing way. The paper describes the development of Shaw’s comic and technical style. It focuses on some of Shaw’s memorable comedies, which display his comic genius during his career.</p> Shawqi Ali Daghem Mohammed, Dr. Shaikh Samad Copyright (c) 2018 Shawqi Ali Daghem Mohammed, Dr. Shaikh Samad Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Ethical Significance of Ziauddin Barni’s Fatwa-E Jahandari and its Contemporary Relevance <p>Ziauddin Barni was the first Muslim to write the history of India. His close association with the ruling circles of Delhi enabled him to observe the administrative activities of the kings. Based on his experiences, he has documented the historical data in his works. His <em>Fatwa-e Jahandari </em>is a monumental work, which is a record of not only the historical facts but also a detailed account of the qualities of an ideal ruler. It enumerates and illustrates twenty four political ideals that should be part and parcel of a good ruler. This research paper focuses on ten values advocated by Barni, which could be viewed as an essential part of the ethical values. It showcases the significance of ethical leadership and offers an analysis of ten select values in the light of ethics. Subsequently, it depicts how the ethical values recommended by Barni are pertinent to the contemporary society.</p> Dr. Sakina I. H. Khan Copyright (c) 2018 Dr. Sakina I. H. Khan Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Romantic Sublime in Kalidas’s Works: An Ecocritical Approach to the Study of ‘Abhijnanashakuntalam’ <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Kalidas’s plays are replete with descriptive details of flora and fauna and vivid pictures of naturedrawn from diverse sources and rich imagery. His works particularly “Ritusambharam’’, “Meghdutam’’ and ‘’Abhijnanashakuntalam’’ also show a symbiotic relationship between man and nature. Though there are many works on his plays and epicscritiquingnature,its grandeur and other related aspects. This paper attempts to critique the Ecocritical concept of Romantic sublime in “Abhijnanashakuntalam “. This paper examines the ecosystem presented in this play by Kalidas, which endorses the emotional experiences of the wonder of nature. It also critiques the text with reference to Lee Rozelle’s&nbsp; concept of ‘ ecosublime’ which suggests that sublime encounter with nature inspires awe which further invites ecological catastrophe as well as environmental responsibility. This paper further discusses the profundity of thought, emotion and spirit represented by spectacular landscapes, characters and living and non-living objects in the forest. It further interrogates the ecocentric setting of the play which extends an egalitarian perspective with respect to all elements of nature and acknowledges the intrinsic value of all living beings. The paper concludes that ‘Abhjjnashakuntalam’ presents the ecocritical perspective of society, culture and gender,which highlight nature and evoke emotional experiences with awe and wonder in postmodern world faced with danger of environmental catastrophe.</em></p> Chandra Shekhar Dubey Copyright (c) 2018 Chandra Shekhar Dubey Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Theme of Loss and Grief in Shashi Deshpande's Small Remedies <p>A writer throws light on the darkest aspects of life and motivates the reader by projecting the human realities through their fictional characters. Success and failure are the part of impermanent life. Have we ever tried to analyze the struggles and challenges behind one's failure and success? In a patriarchal society, women have to undergo multiple struggles and challenges and require an indomitable spirit to quench her thirst of success. It is highly important to analyze the psychology of women in her loses and happiness. As a woman novelist, Shashi Deshpande novels mostly centered on Women's lives and their challenges to survive in the Indian society. The female protagonist in Small Remedies has gone through several loses and grief beyond her success. Other women characters also built their strong identity after crossing all the barriers and awakening the collective consciousness.</p> Vanitha Devaraju Copyright (c) 2018 Vanitha Devaraju Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Ecological Assertion in the Poems of Agha Shahid Ali and Sylvia Plath <p>The serious ecological crises like air pollution, acid precipitation, global warming, deforestation, and loss of biodiversity have engulfed our planet earth. Ecocriticism became very much acclaimed critical approach in the 1980’s after Feminism and Post-colonialism, and developed, with attention from scholars of various fields, in different countries into a separate subject. In the application of Ecocriticism to the study of all forms of literary works it shows the ideas and thoughts that prove helpful in dealing with the relationshipbetween man and nature, and also contribute to the cause of environmental preservation.</p> AadilMuzafar Pala, Dr.Zameerpal Kaur Copyright (c) 2018 AadilMuzafar Pala, Dr.Zameerpal Kaur Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Diving into the Subconscious of Women and Nature: Margaret Atwood’s Surfacing as an Ecofeminist Novel <p>Woman and nature can be considered the best creations of god. Both together keep the earth alive and balanced through the process of creation. The male dominated practices have destroyed the nature as well as women. This paper deals with the different aspects of Eco-feminism through the novel <em>Surfacing</em> by Margaret Atwood. The narrator’s quest to the wilderness of Canada in search for her father which leads to a quest of self-discovery in the lap of nature becomes the major focus of this paper. The unknown protagonist becomes a representative of the entire female community. The realization that women are just an object to be conquered and violated by men is what leads to the ‘surfacing’ of the protagonist. In complete harmony with nature excluding clothes, language, food etc. the protagonist goes crazy which gives her more happiness that with her other relationships. The paper also tries to analyse the close relationship between women and nature and how the virgin nature and woman are destroyed by the invasion of the male community. Repressed gender roles, submissiveness, self-realization through nature and the challenges faced by women that are presented. The concept of women and nature as both victims of the male dominated society is also emphasized. This novel is the perfect literary example of an Eco-feminist work that portrays the destruction of women and nature even in the minutest episodes in the novel. Nature is a treasure-house of many myths that lay hidden in the beliefs, rights and rituals of the aboriginals which are passed from one generation to another. In the same manner women also are the sustainer's of many myths that the male society has made upon her. The mother i.e. both woman and nature is examined here.In a vast country like Canada,nature comprises to its majority through its wilderness.This wilderness hides many priceless virtues and knowledge that can be learnt only in complete harmony with nature.<em>Surfacing</em> is not just the journey of a woman but it is the quest that the female gender thrives for.This paper combines the theories of eco-criticism, eco-feminism and to analyse the novel <em>Surfacing</em> into a biological whole that merges nature, man and the beliefs of man that make existence meaningful and life worth living. In an era of rapid industrialization and materialism, it is necessary to go on a quest back to nature and learn how life was easier in the lap of nature. Great writers like Shakespeare,Chaucer and Wordsworth were able to carve out such master pieces only because of their relationship with the purest and virgin nature which is the greatest teacher for mankind of all times.</p> Hyma Santhosh Copyright (c) 2016 Hyma Santhosh Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Theme of Love in Paulo Coelho’s Select Novels <p>Coelho’s popular `The Alchemist` is not a novel on the roles of men and women and it is not making any statement about mundane love except talking about a mystical Universal love. But it does say about love being one of the most important and valuable treasures that can be found.&nbsp; The other novels are equally mystical leaning much on Erosand Agape. Rather they try to show the inner lanes of agape. This is a brief attempt to show the author’s experience of agape is not only universal but also personal.</p> J. Punitha, Dr.J. UmaSamundeeswari Copyright (c) 2018 J. Punitha, Dr.J. UmaSamundeeswari Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Anita Desai’s Fire on the Mountain: Divulgence of Characters <p>British Guardian Prize winner and thrice nominated for Booker Prize, famous Indian novelist writing in English Anita Desai’s Sahitya Academy Award winning one of the masterpieces <em>Fire on the Mountain</em> published in1977. The book focuses on an elderly widow’s isolation and loneliness as it tells the story of Nanda Kaul who lives in Kasauli and leads a solitary existence. The old lady, Nanda lives alone in a colonial house on a slope. She gives nobody a chance to interfere with her secluded life. She had spent numerous years thinking about her husband, their kids, and numerous grandkids. She has turned into a loner and remains confined from everybody including an incredible grandkid. This is her circumstance until the point that the colossal grandkid touches base on her doorstep. Raka,a young girl who is wiped out and is as withdrawn as Nanda. The child lives in her very own kind of disconnection as she withdraws into a universe of inward dream where she makes undertakings of pursuing snakes, creatures, and phantoms in the serene slopes that encompass her and her incredible grandma. The old lady sees that both of them share things for all intents and purpose however that a noteworthy distinction exists also. Nanda has been a solitary person while the young lady was naturally introduced to that sort of presence. Nanda gradually starts to need to be a piece of the kid's life and needs to impart her reality to her. Her endeavours, be that as it may, seem, by all accounts, to be futile. Her awesome granddaughter will give nobody a chance to enter her life. Nanda is not debilitated and endeavours to associate with the child by imparting stories to her. Anita Desai talks of her writing as simply ‘stories,’ and of herself as a ‘storyteller’. In this very simple way she has beautifully painted the female characters and their sufferings in the novel <em>Fire on the Mountain</em> which is the focused area of this research article.</p> Arindam Patra Copyright (c) 2018 Arindam Patra Wed, 26 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exile of Women in Anita Raw Badami’s Can You Hear the Nightbird Call? <p>Anita Rau Badami is an Indo-Canadian writer who has written four exceptional novels. Her widely praised books are known for the honest portrayal of Indian families and solid disapproved of women. Woman exploitation is one of the disasters defying ladies everywhere throughout the world. This malice is additionally intensified in the event that they are put in precarious political social orders or occasions. Women being greatly defenceless are obvious objectives of any type of abuse, embarrassment, hardship and segregation. Segment writing investigates the sexual injury, sufferings and excruciating encounter of ladies amid and after the Partition. This from multiple points of view substantiates the way that imbalance of genders is neither a natural reality nor a perfect order yet a social develop. The paper deals with the exploitation of women and their horrible encounters through the viewpoint of a female in Anita Rau Badami’s in her novel<em> Can You Hear the Nightbird Call? </em>This novel focuses on the subject of the Partition of India and Pakistan.</p> K. Sathishkumar, Dr. V. K. Saravanan Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Error Analysis for English Language Teachingat Primary Level <p>The prime concern of every language teacher, and to some extent every linguist, is to device pedagogical methods and strategies which facilitate language acquisition. The concern of any teacher or applied linguist is, though not explicitly stated anywhere, to equip the learners with “correct” features of the language being learnt. Emphasis on “correctness” is due to the presumption that erroneous structures or deviations from linguistic code will lead to incomprehensibility and impediment in communication.As a result of such convictionsContrastive Analysis (CA) and Error Analysis (EA) focussed their attention on “correct” grammatical, lexical and syntactical features of Target Language (TL), in this case English.Both &nbsp;Contrastive Analysts and Error Analysts analysed the language and tried to predict areas of ease or difficulty. This was often achieved with ‘some’ degree of success. However, in the present socio-educational milieu of Indian schools, where English language teaching is a significant stake, insights from CA and EA, particularly the latter, are either not taken into cognizance, or found inadequate. CA is taken into consideration, though obliquely, indirectly and cursorily, where English language is taught resorting to bilingualism. EA is usually ignored completely. Even when teachers correct students’ assignments and copies, they point out mistakes/errors, suggest corrections, but neither take into account why these mistakes/errors have occurred, nor how to prevent such cases in future. With the ever growing importance of English as a global language and a second language in India, no stakeholder in education can afford to undermine the significance of ELT.The time is therefore ripe to take a fresh look at Error Analysis (EA) and assess how it can be deployed as a powerful tool in school teaching.</p> Dr. Shreeja Sharma, Prof. Shubhra Tripathi Copyright (c) 2018 Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 THROE OF BEING STOLEN IN DORIS PILKINGTON’S CAPRICE - THE STOCKMAN’S DAUGHTER <p>The British controlled dominated and exploited the indigenous population in the process of colonizing Australia in the late Eighteenth Century. They appropriated the aborigines’ land, resources and wealth: they also left psychic scars of stealing their children from the indigenous families under the guise of civilization. Colonial Governments saw Aboriginals not as people who had been colonized but as heathens to be converted and institutionalized. The ‘Assimilation Policy’ as it was called advocated in all the states of Australia in order to remove the half caste aboriginal children. This paper will foreground on the psychic scars of the Stolen Generation writer Doris Pilkington’s novel <em>Caprice - The Stockman’s Daughters</em>. Further this paper will discuss and analyse the fear, persecution, angst desolation and the pain felt by the stolen children and their families in the novel <em>Caprice - The Stockman’s Daughter</em>.</p> Colette Sharmila, Dr. A. JosephineAlangara Betsy Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Uncanniness and the Othering of the ‘Androids’ and the ‘Clones’ in Philip K. Dick’s Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and in Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go <p>The article gives an explanation of the definition of ‘the Other’ and tries to explore how the technological Others namely the Androids and the Clones in Philip K. Dick’s novel, <em>Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?</em> and in Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel, <em>Never Let Me Go</em>, are treated as ‘the Other’ using the Theory of the Uncanny.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Linnette John Majella. J Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Conflict between Past and Future: A Study of Rose Tremain’s The Road Home and The Colour <p>One’s memories or imaginationsconstitute his or her present life. In simple terms, the present is made up of the reaction to one’s memories or imaginations. This research paper proves how the conflict between the past and the future constitutes one’s present life by analyzing the major characters in <em>The Road Home </em>and in<em>The Colour. </em>Lev from <em>The Road Home</em>and Joseph from <em>The Colour </em>are seeking asylum in the past in order to escape the painful present. However, Levmanages to escape from the past and climb the ladder of future. Finally, he becomes a successful entrepreneur in the present. But, Joseph lives in the past. He couldn’t escape from the clutches of it till the end. He not onlylives in the past but also plans to amend it in the future. Consequently, his present life is full of regrets and miseries.</p> M. Saravanan, Dr. P. Premalatha, Dr. V. Chanthiramathi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 14 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Anthropomorphic Insights: A study the subaltern hero with reference to Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron <p>Animal&nbsp; characters&nbsp; have&nbsp; fascinated&nbsp; viewers&nbsp; as&nbsp; well&nbsp; as&nbsp; readers&nbsp; in&nbsp; animated&nbsp; as&nbsp; well&nbsp; non-animated&nbsp; films&nbsp; and&nbsp; in&nbsp; fiction.&nbsp; This&nbsp; unfading&nbsp; interest&nbsp; in&nbsp; animal&nbsp; characters&nbsp; have&nbsp; inspired&nbsp; writers&nbsp; and&nbsp; film&nbsp; makers&nbsp; to&nbsp; use&nbsp; anthropomorphism&nbsp; as&nbsp; a&nbsp; tool&nbsp; for&nbsp; breathing&nbsp; life&nbsp; into&nbsp; flora&nbsp; and&nbsp; fauna.&nbsp; One&nbsp; could&nbsp; observe&nbsp; that&nbsp; films&nbsp; and&nbsp; fiction&nbsp; which&nbsp; are&nbsp; anthropomorphic&nbsp; in&nbsp; nature&nbsp; focus&nbsp; on&nbsp; relations&nbsp; between&nbsp; humans&nbsp; and&nbsp; animals&nbsp; as&nbsp; well&nbsp; as&nbsp; between&nbsp; weaker&nbsp; and&nbsp; stronger&nbsp; animals.&nbsp; A&nbsp; hegemonic&nbsp; relationship&nbsp; could&nbsp; be&nbsp; seen&nbsp; emerging&nbsp; among&nbsp; the&nbsp; characters&nbsp; thus&nbsp; making&nbsp; these&nbsp; perfect&nbsp; for&nbsp; post-colonial&nbsp; study.&nbsp; In&nbsp; post-colonialism&nbsp; the&nbsp; element&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; ‘subaltern’&nbsp; plays&nbsp; a&nbsp; major&nbsp; role.&nbsp; In&nbsp; all&nbsp; of&nbsp; these&nbsp; works&nbsp; the&nbsp; relationship&nbsp; between&nbsp; man&nbsp; and&nbsp; animals&nbsp; as&nbsp; well&nbsp; as&nbsp; stronger&nbsp; and&nbsp; weaker animals&nbsp; can&nbsp; be&nbsp; analysed&nbsp; through&nbsp; this&nbsp;&nbsp; aspect&nbsp; of&nbsp; ‘subalternity’&nbsp; since&nbsp; the&nbsp; latter&nbsp; becomes&nbsp; the&nbsp; subaltern.&nbsp; While&nbsp; analysing&nbsp; a&nbsp; film&nbsp; or&nbsp; fiction&nbsp; of&nbsp; anthropomorphic&nbsp; nature&nbsp; as&nbsp; a&nbsp; subaltern&nbsp; text&nbsp; we&nbsp; cannot&nbsp; ignore&nbsp; Antonio&nbsp; Gramsci’s&nbsp; theory&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; subaltern&nbsp; since&nbsp; he&nbsp; used&nbsp; this&nbsp; term&nbsp; for&nbsp; referring&nbsp; to&nbsp; all&nbsp; of&nbsp; those&nbsp; groups&nbsp; in&nbsp; society&nbsp; who&nbsp; were&nbsp; suppressed&nbsp; by&nbsp; the&nbsp; ruling&nbsp; class.&nbsp; DreamWorks Pictures’&nbsp;&nbsp; <em>Spirit:&nbsp; Stallion&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; Cimarron</em> <strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong>narrates&nbsp; the&nbsp; story&nbsp; of&nbsp; an&nbsp; anthropomorphic&nbsp; wild&nbsp; stallion&nbsp; who&nbsp; saves&nbsp; his&nbsp; herd&nbsp; from&nbsp; being&nbsp; destroyed&nbsp; by&nbsp; the&nbsp; U.S&nbsp; Cavalry.&nbsp; Spirit&nbsp; witnesses&nbsp; two&nbsp; contradictory&nbsp; sides&nbsp; of&nbsp; humans&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; form&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; Colonel&nbsp; who&nbsp; commands&nbsp; the&nbsp; cavalry&nbsp; and&nbsp; a&nbsp; Lakota&nbsp; Native&nbsp; American,&nbsp; Little&nbsp; Creek,&nbsp; who&nbsp; has&nbsp; been&nbsp; kept&nbsp; in&nbsp; captivity&nbsp; at&nbsp; the&nbsp; cavalry.&nbsp; While&nbsp; the&nbsp; Colonel&nbsp; tries&nbsp; to&nbsp; suppress&nbsp; Spirit&nbsp; by&nbsp; breaking&nbsp; his&nbsp; inner&nbsp; ‘spirit’&nbsp; and&nbsp; transforming&nbsp; him&nbsp; into&nbsp; a&nbsp; beast&nbsp; of&nbsp; burden&nbsp; Little&nbsp; Creek&nbsp; teaches&nbsp; him&nbsp; how&nbsp; to&nbsp; harness&nbsp; his&nbsp; unrestricted&nbsp; energy&nbsp; in&nbsp; order&nbsp; to&nbsp; discover&nbsp; his&nbsp; inner&nbsp; strength&nbsp; whereby&nbsp; which&nbsp; he&nbsp; breaks&nbsp; down&nbsp; the&nbsp; supremacy&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; Colonel.&nbsp; Thus&nbsp; Spirit&nbsp; symbolises&nbsp; the&nbsp; subaltern&nbsp; hero&nbsp; who&nbsp; ends&nbsp; the&nbsp; oppressive&nbsp; reign&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; Colonel&nbsp; and&nbsp; his&nbsp; cavalry&nbsp; upon&nbsp; his&nbsp; herd&nbsp; as&nbsp; well&nbsp; as&nbsp; the&nbsp; Lakota&nbsp; Native&nbsp; settlement.</p> Raghunandanan Roshni, Dr. Tessy Anthony. C Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000